tinct refractive indices, layer thicknesses, and surface mass densities. cancer and gene therapy, medical imaging) by enabling the targeted . SPR flow channel due to temperature changes. Liposome . Furthermore, the relation- ship n. Refractive index is inversely proportional to temperature. Refractive index by definition is inversely proportional to velocity of light in the medium. As temperature. temperature slightly above the triple point, K. At the triple point the refractive index based on the dispersion relation, which incorporates the .. therapy and Radiation Research, edited by M. Inokuti (IAEA, Vienna,. ), Chap. 5.
This approach is possible because the laser heating produces high NP temperatures that facilitate the observation of their thermal radiation incandescence. This incandescence depends on the thermo-physical properties of the NPs, such as heat capacity, density, particle size, volume fraction and the refractive index of the particle material, as well as on the heat-mass transfer between the NPs and the surrounding gas media.
Thus, the incandescence signal carries information about these properties, which can be extracted by signal analyses. This pulsed laser heating approach is referred to as laser-induced incandescence. Here, we apply this approach to investigate the properties of carbon, metal and carbon-encapsulated Fe NPs. In this review, the recent results of the measurements of the NP refractive index function, thermal energy accommodation coefficient of the NP surface with bath gas molecules and the NP evaporation temperature obtained using laser-induced incandescence are presented and discussed.
Understanding and predicting the temporal response of laser-induced incandescence from carbonaceous particles. Heat conduction from a spherical nanoparticle: B83, — Clouds over soot evaporation: Transactions of the ASME, — LIISim — a modular signal processing toolbox for laser-induced incandescence measurements.
B, Light scattering by fractal aggregates: Light absorption by carbonaceous particles: Optical extinction by spherical carbonaceous particles.
Carbon37, — Black carbon or brown carbon? The nature of light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosols. Spectral properties of soot in the UV-visible range. The influence of temperature of magnetic and phase transitions on iron optical properties.
Teplofizika Vysokih Temperatur23 3— High Temperature51 197— Comparison of a fractal smoke optics model with light extinction measurements. Optical constants of soot and their application to heat-flux calculations. Determination of the refractive indices of soot particles from the reflectivities of compressed soot pellets.
Flame94, — Spectral extinction coefficients of soot aggregates from turbulent diffusion flames. Heat Transfer, — Refractive indices at visible wavelengths of soot emitted from buoyant turbulent diffusion flames. Optical properties in the visible of overfire soot in large buoyant turbulent diffusion flames.
An empirical method for the determination of the complex refractive index of size-fractionated atmospheric aerosols for radiative transfer calculations.
Diffuse-light two-dimensional line-of-sight attenuation for soot concentration measurements.
Spectroscopic models for laser-heated silicon and copper nanoparticles. Extinction and scattering properties of soot emitted from buoyant turbulent diffusion flames.
Inversion method and experiment to determine the soot refractive index: Determination of the soot absorption function and thermal accommodation coefficient using low-fluence LII in a laminar coflow ethylene diffusion flame. Flame, — Spectrally resolved measurement of flame radiation to determine soot temperature and concentration.
Determination of the wavelength dependence of refractive indices of flame soot. A, — Wavelength and temperature dependences of the absorption and scattering cross sections of soot. Carbon48, — Comparison of LII derived soot temperature measurements with LII model predictions for soot in a laminar diffusion flame.
B96, — Peak soot temperature in laser induced incandescence measurements. Size dependence of complex refractive index function of growing nanoparticles. B, — Measurement of the mass specific extinction coefficient for acetylene and ethene smoke using the large agglomerate optics facility.
Soot scattering measurements in the visible and near-infrared spectrum. Determination of soot scattering coefficient from extinction and three-angle scattering in a laminar diffusion flame.
optics - Refractive index of air in dependence of temperature - Physics Stack Exchange
In situ nanoparticle size measurements of gas-borne silicon nanoparticles by time-resolved laser-induced incandescence. Laser-induced atomic emission of silicon nanoparticles during laser-induced heating. Due to this fact, the determination of complex expansion coefficients is highly impeded by kinetic processes that occur for the phase-separating PNIPAM solution above T c Since according to Fig.
There exists no reason why the Lorentz—Lorenz relationship should break down above T cas long as the electrodynamic theory for homogeneous systems can be applied at the used optical wavelength. A central question of this article is how the local and macroscopic cooperativity of the demixing transition develops above T c.
As the specific refractivity reflects molecular optical properties, they are calculated for a large concentration range, using the datasets of the refractive indices and the specific volumes given in Fig.
The respective specific refractivity curves are provided in Fig. Within the homogeneous low temperature phase, the specific refractivity is almost constant for a given PNIPAM concentration. Obviously, r c increases almost linearly from 0.
One might wonder whether due to quantitative or qualitative arguments, the difference between hydrated and bulk water molecules does not significantly affect the r c -relationship. From bottom to top: This clearly shows that the partial dehydration and the accompanying structural reorganization highly affect the evolution of the specific refractivity.
Obviously, the bond polarisabilities are highly affected by demixing. The dehydration process probably starts already slightly, but in a measurable manner, in the homogeneous low temperature phase when the quality of the solvent passes from good to bad. For the dilute and semi-dilute solutions, the specific refractivity could be calculated from the low temperature phase, through the order parameter-modified range until the demixed high temperature phase.
It turns out that the specific refractivity strongly couples to the order parameter of the demixing transition and shows an anomalous behaviour i. As soon as the specific refractivity turns again towards constancy, the phase separated high temperature state is established.
This temperature behaviour of the specific refractivity just above T c suggests that pronounced instabilities of the hydrogen bonds and the structure are at its origin. As the total number of molecules is conserved during the demixing process this result suggests that the specific refractivity is also sensitive to the modification in the structure and interactions provoked by the demixing transition.
This overview shows that the demixing temperature T cdetermined from the position of the kinks of the r T -curves and n D T -curves, coincide well for this solution. A better understanding of the role of the specific refractivity and the specific volume in the phase separation process can be gained by representing one versus the other for the different PNIPAM solutions. A zoom on the datasets for the dilute to semi-dilute concentrations, for which the refractive indices could be determined across the whole range of the phase separation, is shown in Fig.