Citizenship and State - WikiEducator
workings of government but also our economy and our society. say that technology allows "a new relationship between citizen and state and the way we . that she wouldn't “be pulling the levers” but she would “be a very good back- seat. Leiden researchers study the extent to which Asian citizens can invoke the rights that they have on paper. This knowledge helps them advise the different levels. This book is the first in the 'Beliefs in government' series, and examines the general consensus that the relationship between citizens and the state in Western.
The judge must ensure that women receive maintenance after a divorce, for instance. We began by questioning the assumptions on which this model is based. Divorce occurs a lot — particularly in West Java where we conducted our research — and the reason is usually because the husband does not earn enough. In such a case, it does not make much sense for the woman to go to court, because the man cannot pay maintenance anyway. As long as the marriage was concluded according to Islamic rules, the community sees it as valid.
But if children are produced in the second marriage, the partners want it to be officially registered to prove that the child was not born out of wedlock. A birth certificate is becoming increasingly important for school places, opening a bank account, marrying, voting, finding a job and welfare and health care. Officially speaking, the Religious Affairs Office is not allowed to register a second marriage if the divorce was not filed in court.
What often happens then is that the civil servant registers the new marriage anyway. But if other authorities discover that the registration was not according to the rules, for instance the civil registry office that issues birth certificates, you then have a problem.
Citizenship: relationship between citizens and state
In that case, many women go to court after all. The court normally grants a retroactive divorce, at least if the official terms have been met. In practice, many problems are thus solved pragmatically. Some have suggested that retroactive divorce should be banned altogether and that there should be fines for marriages that were not registered according to the rules.
The women who call for this are usually middle class and an official divorce is in their interest. What is this right? In this context a definition of Laskis may be pointed out. The classification of rights: The rights are generally divided into two broad categories as: The legal right is again divided into two divisions, such as; social right and political right.
The classification of rights is shown below in a diagram. Add diagram here Moral Right Legal Right: The rights that are created from the rules of society and conscience are called moral rights; e. If the moral rights are violated, the society hates or criticizes.
But there is no provision for inflicting punishment for it.
The rights created and approved by the state are called legal rights; e. For the violation of this right the violator is punished.
Civics deals with the legal rights. The rights which help the citizens to lead a civil and improved life and the rights which are indispensably necessary for safety and security of life in the society are called the Social rights. These rights help to develop the virtues of the individual. Without these, it is not possible on the part of a man to lead improved social life. The main Social rights are discussed below: Right to security of life: The right to security of life is the right to life.
Unless there is the safety of life other rights become meaningless. It is the responsibility of the state to save the life of the citizens. The right to property means to acquire property, to enjoy property and the facilities to transfer property. The meaning of this right is that one's property is not to be encroached upon or plundered by others. It is the responsibility of the state to give security of property. The right to movement: All the citizens have the right to move freely every where in the state.
This is a] fundamental right. But if the free movement of the individual becomes the cause of harm to the state, the state can debar him from that. Right to express opinion: This right is the right of freedom to express opinion. This is an important right without this right democracy cannot work. But if the opinion is anti-state or destructive, the state can control it.
It is desirable that the opinion should be reasonable, constructive and beneficial to the people. Freedom of the Press: This is the right to express opinion freely through newspapers or books. Newspapers criticizes the government activities and policies. They publish opinions of the government or opposition. These are necessary to form public opinion. To express anti-state and obscene opinion does not fall within this right.
In a democratic state this is an important right. Right to hold meeting: The state recognizes the right of holding meetings on different matters. But if te holding of meeting and association are not creative and noble rather they are anti-state or with unlawful motive, the state can control those activities.
The citizens have the right to contract for trade and commerce, transfer of property or any other matter. The state helps the citizens to maintain the terms of the contract.
But a contract against the state or public welfare cannot be entered into. Right to form family: Right to form family is indispensably necessary for a civilized society.
Social life grows up centering round the family.
To marry, to produce children, to bring up them and the inheritance are under this right. With the right to religion the citizens at their own will can accept religion, perform the religious rites and preach the religion. Others cannot put obstruction to it.
A citizen can take up any lawful profession according to his qualification. Equality in the eye of law: Equality in the eye of law means that law is applicable equally for all. The rich and the poor, the strong and the weak- all must obey the law of the state.
Citizenship: relationship between citizens and state - Leiden University
For committing crime all will suffer the punishment. Right to health and education: For the development of life, health and education are indispensably necessary. The state must ensure the security of public health providing treatment of illness, cleanness, nutrition and safe drinking water.
Education makes worthy and conscious citizen. Every citizen has the right to education.Bad Citizen vs Good Citizen
It is the duty of the state to provide opportunity of education for all. Right to culture and language: