Federalism in the United States (video) | Khan Academy
NCSL Executive Director William T. Pound assesses the current state-federal relationship. Relationship to Federal & State Government. The U.S. Constitution does not mention local units of government. As creations of the individual states, however, . State-Federal. Relationship for Effective Governance. Innovations in Workforce Development. Regulations “Many national policies, from health care reform .
Relationship to Federal & State Government
Whether this is a temporary change in the state-federal relationship or a more permanent one remains to be seen. There certainly has been a growth in the percentage of federal funds in state budgets over the last 50 years, with Medicaid the big ticket item.
Medicaid is now the primary vehicle for the expansion of health care to the uninsured. It currently accounts for 21 percent of state budgets and grows by the year.
Under the vast new federal health reform, conflicts over the regulation of insurers, the operations of the exchange programs and risk pool funding are unavoidable. The temporary stimulus of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funds soon will be over and their impact on cushioning state budgets from the downturn will be gone.
What remains will be a large federal deficit. Future federal spending on domestic discretionary programs will be flat or declining. Reducing the deficit will require reduced spending or new revenues, or both.
Either solution will affect state governments. The search for new revenues could have a major effect on traditional state revenue sources, particularly a national Value Added Tax on state sales taxes. It is easy to see considerable state-federal tension arising from this debate.
Many of the formal mechanisms of intergovernmental cooperation have been eliminated. The Advisory Committee on Intergovernmental Relations was abolished, a victim of rising partisanship in our politics. Intergovernmental concerns are not often prominent in congressional debate, though organizations like NCSL work to keep state concerns in the national dialogue.
Nearly all of our major domestic policy programs—Medicaid, family assistance, transportation and education—are managed by states or localities. This will only increase with health care expansion. In other policy areas the states have already prodded the federal government to act.
It's referring to a government that has various layers where you could have the national government, often known as the federal government, and then you have the states, and you're gonna have multiple states over here, and then you could have even further layers, and in the United States you indeed do. You have the local governments, and even within the local you have city governments, you have county governments. The analogy that's often made is originally the federal idea was kind of like a layered cake, so this is my best attempt at drawing a quick layered cake, where you could view each layer as one of the layers of government.
So when I cut open that cake, maybe right over here this blue layer right over here, it's blue flavored cake, maybe it's an ice cream cake of some kind, that might be the federal government. Then this yellow, maybe it's mango-flavored, that would be the state government. And then you have your strawberry-flavored local government. That is one view of federalism, but it turns out in the United States, especially over the passage of time this has gotten mixed up a little bit.
So even though the United States might have started a little bit closer to something like this layered cake, today it is more of a marble cake where the different layers and their powers are more mixed together, and so this is my attempt to drawing the mixing of these various powers.
And not only do they mix, they overlap. That different layers of our federal government, some have exclusive powers, which means that's the only layer that has them, while some of them, while sometimes there are concurrent powers, which means these are powers that multiple layers might actually have.
Now to appreciate what these exclusive and concurrent powers are, here's a Venn diagram that shows some of them.
Relationship to Federal & State Government
So on the left-hand side right over here you have your exclusive federal powers. So in the United States, only the federal government can coin money.
You can't have money from Texas or California. Only the federal government can declare war, which is related to the idea of conducting foreign affairs, which once again, only the federal government can do. That's also related to raising armies, once again, only the federal government.
Rules of naturalization, who becomes an immigrant, who gets a green card, who becomes a citizen, all determined by the federal government not by the states. And the federal government regulates not just foreign affairs, but foreign commerce, trade agreements, and how is trade done.
They're regulating between the states. Now exclusive powers to the states, they conduct elections.
You might say, "Wait, wait, wait. Remember, we have the electoral college.