Comparison with the League of Nations
The League of Nations was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January as The League lasted for 26 years; the United Nations (UN) replaced it after the end of the Second World War and inherited several .. This change can be seen in the relationship between the League and non-members. view of the past relation of the United States to the League and the . the Constitution of the United States as it existed on paper at the time it became effective in .. United Nations has three, among which the various functions and powers. The League of Nations was established at the end of World War I as an of the League, the United States did not officially join the League of Nations due to Wilson believed that affairs between nations should be conducted in the open, on the . discovered the inverse, linear relationship between pressure and volume.
On the contrary, it bred a determination to learn from the mistakes of the past and to build a new world body more adequately equipped to maintain international peace in the future. The differences between the League of Nations and the UN begin with the circumstances of their creation. First, whereas the Covenant of the League was formulated after hostilities were ended, the main features of the UN were devised while war was still in progress.
The more comprehensive powers assigned to the UN for the preservation of peace may owe something to the urgent conditions in which it was conceived.
Second, the Covenant was drawn up in an atmosphere of divided attention at the Paris Peace Conference and was incorporated as part of the peace treaty with Germany. Although countries were permitted to ratify the Covenant and the treaty separately, the link between them was not good psychology and contributed, for example, to the unwillingness of the US Senate to ratify the Covenant.
In contrast, the UN Charter was draft ed as an independent legal instrument at a conference especially convened for the purpose. Third, the Covenant was hammered out behind closed doors, first by the five major powers of the era— FranceItaly, Japanthe United Kingdomand the United States —and eventually in conjunction with nine other allied nations. The final text of the UN Charter, on the other hand, was the product of combined efforts of 50 nations represented at the San Francisco Conference and therefore took into account the views of the smaller nations, especially their concern to give the new organization far-reaching responsibilities in promoting economic and social cooperation and the independence of colonial peoples.
This rule applied both to the League's Council, which had special responsibilities for maintaining peace the equivalent of the UN's Security Counciland to the all-member Assembly the equivalent of the UN's General Assembly. In effect, each member state of the League had the power of the veto, and, except for procedural matters and a few specified topics, a single "nay" killed any resolution.
Learning from this mistake, the founders of the UN decided that all its organs and subsidiary bodies should make decisions by some type of majority vote though, on occasion, committees dealing with a particularly controversial issue have been known to proceed by consensus.
The rule of unanimity applies only to five major powers—France, Chinathe United Kingdom, the United Statesand the Russian Federation —and then only when they are acting in their capacity as permanent members of the Security Council. The Security Council also proceeds by majority vote, but on substantive though not on procedural matters, it must include the concurring votes of all the permanent members.
See the section on Voting in the chapter on the Security Council. These defects and omissions included the absence of any provision imposing a total ban on war, the provision of an overly rigid procedure for negotiating disputes between states, and the failure to vest the League's Council with sufficient powers to prevent the outbreak of hostilities or to terminate hostilities that had already begun.
- The League of Nations
- The League of Nations and the United Nations
- League of Nations: Structure of the League of Nations
The Covenant forbade military aggression but did not reject the limited right of a state to start a war, provided that it had first submitted the dispute to arbitration, judicial decision, or the Council of the League.
If one party accepted the findings of the negotiating body and the second did not, the first might then resort to war legally after a "cooling-off" period.
Structure of the League of Nations - League of Nations - Oxford LibGuides at Oxford University
The Charter recognizes no circumstances under which a nation may legally start a war. Article 51 does guarantee the right to individual or collective self-defense, which is a right to respond to an illegal armed attack but not to initiate one.
If the Security Council decides that a "threat to the peace" exists, it has the power to order collective enforcement measures. These are mandatory for all member states and may include economic sanctions or military measures, but the power rarely has been invoked.
See the chapter on International Peace and Security. Moreover, it failed to secure or retain the membership of certain major powers whose participation and cooperation were essential to make it an effective instrument for preserving the peace. The three aggressor states themselves withdrew their membership during the s to pursue their expansionist aims. The UN, on the other hand, is approaching the goal of universality, with only a few smaller countries still unrepresented.
By Novemberits membership had reached Throughout its existence, the UN, together with its specialized agencies, has gradually assumed primary responsibility for assisting the economic and social development of nonindustrialized member nations, most of them former colonial territories that joined the world body long after it was founded.
The UN's many projects have become the cornerstone of the development policies adopted by almost all these countries. Since the Covenant of the League contained no provisions for a coordinated program of economic and social cooperation, there can be no comparison between the respective achievements of the two organizations in this respect. Nevertheless, the League performed valuable work in several fields: League of Nations Organisation chart  Palace of NationsGeneva, the League's headquarters from until its dissolution in The main constitutional organs of the League were the Assembly, the Council, and the Permanent Secretariat.
It also had two essential wings: In addition, there were several auxiliary agencies and commissions. Each body could deal with any matter within the sphere of competence of the League or affecting peace in the world.
Particular questions or tasks might be referred to either. This requirement was a reflection of the League's belief in the sovereignty of its component nations; the League sought solution by consent, not by dictation. In case of a dispute, the consent of the parties to the dispute was not required for unanimity. The staff of the Secretariat was responsible for preparing the agenda for the Council and the Assembly and publishing reports of the meetings and other routine matters, effectively acting as the League's civil service.
In the staff numbered In practice, the Assembly was the general directing force of League activities. The number of non-permanent members was first increased to six on 22 September and to nine on 8 September Werner Dankwort of Germany pushed for his country to join the League; joining inGermany became the fifth permanent member of the Council.
Later, after Germany and Japan both left the League, the number of non-permanent seats was increased from nine to eleven, and the Soviet Union was made a permanent member giving the Council a total of fifteen members.
History of the United Nations
In total, sessions were held between and The Council and the Assembly established its constitution. Its judges were elected by the Council and the Assembly, and its budget was provided by the latter. The Court was to hear and decide any international dispute which the parties concerned submitted to it. It might also give an advisory opinion on any dispute or question referred to it by the Council or the Assembly. The Court was open to all the nations of the world under certain broad conditions.
Its constitution differed from that of the League: Albert Thomas was its first director. It also campaigned to end child labour, increase the rights of women in the workplace, and make shipowners liable for accidents involving seamen. The Committee's purpose was to conduct inquiries, oversee the operation of the League's health work, and prepare work to be presented to the Council.
The Health Organisation also worked successfully with the government of the Soviet Union to prevent typhus epidemics, including organising a large education campaign.
The French philosopher Henri Bergson became the first chairman of the committee. The board also established a system of import certificates and export authorisations for the legal international trade in narcotics. The League secured a commitment from Ethiopia to end slavery as a condition of membership inand worked with Liberia to abolish forced labour and intertribal slavery.
The United Kingdom had not supported Ethiopian membership of the League on the grounds that "Ethiopia had not reached a state of civilisation and internal security sufficient to warrant her admission. Records were kept to control slavery, prostitution, and the trafficking of women and children. It also established the Nansen passport as a means of identification for stateless people. It was formed inand later became part of the United Nations as the Commission on the Status of Women.
Member states of the League of Nations A map of the world in —45, which shows the League of Nations members during its history Of the League's 42 founding members, 23 24 counting Free France remained members until it was dissolved in In the founding year, six other states joined, only two of which remained members throughout the League's existence. The largest number of member states was 58, between 28 September when Ecuador joined and 23 February when Paraguay withdrew.
The first member to withdraw permanently from the League was Costa Rica on 22 January ; having joined on 16 Decemberthis also makes it the member to have most quickly withdrawn. Brazil was the first founding member to withdraw 14 Juneand Haiti the last April Iraqwhich joined inwas the first member that had previously been a League of Nations mandate. In expelling the Soviet Union, the League broke its own rule: Three of these members had been made Council members the day before the vote South Africa, Bolivia, and Egypt.