Monetary policy - Wikipedia
Monetary policy is the process by which the monetary authority of a country, typically the central Monetary policy is associated with interest rates and availability of credit. , it was found to be impractical, because of the highly unstable relationship between monetary aggregates and other macroeconomic variables. Monetary policy: Actions of a central bank or other committees that determine These are achieved by actions such as modifying the interest rate, . globe may have varying levels of interference with the authority's working. A monetary policy that lowers interest rates and stimulates borrowing is We will conclude with a look at the Fed's monetary policy practice in recent decades.
Affecting the term structure Besides interpreting the term structure of interest rates, central banks also may be interested in altering it through shifts in monetary policy. In the common textbook description of the transmission of monetary policy, as encapsulated for example in the so-called IS-LM model, the supply of money plays an important role.
The equilibrium of money supply by the central bank and money demand by the public the LM curve provides an interest rate, which in turn helps to determine the demand for output via the IS curve.
Currently, however, many central banks appear uninterested in the quantity of money and instead focus directly on interest rates. Many central banks have simply taken a short-term interest rate as their direct operating instrument.
For example, the popular Taylor Rule description of Federal Reserve behavior assumes that the stance of monetary policy is well represented by the federal funds rate. In this case, the monetary transmission mechanism operates from the short-term rate to real spending on goods and services that is, simply via the IS curve.
Of course, none of the important sectors of real spending—housing, investment, or consumption—depends directly on the overnight federal funds rate.
Do interest rates play a major role in monetary policy transmission in China?
Instead, spending depends on longer-term interest rates. In this way, gauging how changes in the short rate induced by the central bank affect the entire term structure of longer-term rates will be a crucial link in understanding the monetary transmission mechanism. Cook and Hahn provide some of the earliest information on the effects of central bank actions on the term structure. They searched for the days on which the Wall Street Journal reported that the Federal Reserve had changed the federal funds rate.
Then, for those days, they correlated the actual changes in longer-term rates with the funds rate changes. They found a substantial correlation that diminished, but never disappeared, as the maturity of the longer-term security was increased.
- Monetary policy
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- Do interest rates play a major role in monetary policy transmission in China?
For example, even the yield on a year bond would typically rise 10 to 15 basis points on the day that the funds rate was increased by a percentage point. In a sense then, the federal funds rate, as the instrument of Fed policy, is the tip of the term structure tail that wags the dog of the economy.
Interest Rates and Monetary Policy
Of course, the movements in longer rates following a policy action are not always the same. According to the expectations theory, these movements reflect both the immediate change in the funds rate as well as market expectations about future policy actions, which may vary with the exact circumstances.
Thus there can be an advantage to having the central bank be independent of the political authority, to shield it from the prospect of political pressure to reverse the direction of the policy. But even with a seemingly independent central bank, a central bank whose hands are not tied to the anti-inflation policy might be deemed as not fully credible; in this case there is an advantage to be had by the central bank being in some way bound to follow through on its policy pronouncements, lending it credibility.
Contexts[ edit ] In international economics[ edit ] Optimal monetary policy in international economics is concerned with the question of how monetary policy should be conducted in interdependent open economies. The classical view holds that international macroeconomic interdependence is only relevant if it affects domestic output gaps and inflation, and monetary policy prescriptions can abstract from openness without harm.
The policy trade-offs specific to this international perspective are threefold: Second, another specificity of international optimal monetary policy is the issue of strategic interactions and competitive devaluations, which is due to cross-border spillovers in quantities and prices.
Even though the gains of international policy coordination might be small, such gains may become very relevant if balanced against incentives for international noncooperation. Even though the real exchange rate absorbs shocks in current and expected fundamentals, its adjustment does not necessarily result in a desirable allocation and may even exacerbate the misallocation of consumption and employment at both the domestic and global level. This is because, relative to the case of complete markets, both the Phillips curve and the loss function include a welfare-relevant measure of cross-country imbalances.
Consequently, this results in domestic goals, e. In developing countries[ edit ] Developing countries may have problems establishing an effective operating monetary policy. The primary difficulty is that few developing countries have deep markets in government debt.
The matter is further complicated by the difficulties in forecasting money demand and fiscal pressure to levy the inflation tax by expanding the base rapidly. In general, the central banks in many developing countries have poor records in managing monetary policy.
This is often because the monetary authority in developing countries are mostly not independent of the government, so good monetary policy takes a backseat to the political desires of the government or are used to pursue other non-monetary goals.
For this and other reasons, developing countries that want to establish credible monetary policy may institute a currency board or adopt dollarization. A blog about business and economics.Monetary Policy Unit: Money Supply and Interest Rates
How Does It Work? Monetary policy affects the real economy because the level of the federal funds rate sets the opportunity cost for additional funds for banks. The cost of these funds then influences the level of interest rates that banks charge customers for loans, as well as the level of other market interest rates. Higher interest rates all other things the same raise the cost of borrowing and tend to reduce loan and investment activity, whereas lower interest rates all other things the same reduce the cost of borrowing and tend to increase loan and investment activity.
Advertisement You will find this in some textbooks, but it doesn't make a ton of sense.