immigration demands, and depression in a sample of. adult immigrants. The study did not support the. relationship between resilience and psychological. Resilience and Its Association with Depression, Emotional and Behavioural Problems, and Mental Health Service Utilisation among Refugee. The relationship between resilience and levels of anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in adolescents. Hjemdal O(1).
High level of self-esteem was found in a Brazilian study addressing patients with coronary diseases, though no significant difference was found between men and women A meta-analysis of 80 studies reports that low self-esteem is a predictor factor for depression, regardless of sex or age The highest scores for self-esteem in this study were obtained by patients who presented symptoms of anxiety, thereby not corroborating the results reported in the literature Evidence shows that the relationship between depression and self-esteem is more robust that the relationship between anxiety and self-esteem, a fact that may be related to the cognitive vulnerabilities specific to each situation.
When depressed, individuals make constant negative assessments of themselves, of the world, of future prospects, and when anxious one anticipates physical or psychological threats Further studies are needed to verify whether there is an association between anxiety and self-esteem, controlling for variables that may interfere in the process. Other studies confirm that high self-esteem may be associated with a lower frequency of coronary diseases 20 and improved quality of life among patients with heart failure Positive psychological conditions, such as high self-esteem, may protect the heart, preventing systemic inflammation and atherosclerosis, in contrast with negative psychological conditions, such as depression and despair Individuals with low levels of self-esteem are more sensitive to the opinions of others and worry over the way other people see or judge them, avoiding exposure and protecting their self-esteem.
As a consequence, they may feel lonely, sad, shy, incapable of performing tasks or deriving pleasure from things as they once did, possibly acquiring a negative perception of their own worth, a condition that may lead to the development of symptoms of depression Self-esteem seems to facilitate the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, nurses and other healthcare workers should plan an approach focused on the individual.
Health assessment focused on the biopsychosocial aspects of a cardiac patient in a hospital environment may contribute to the early identification of anxiety and depression symptoms, low self-esteem and impaired resilience, which can aid the promotion of individual or group strategies to treat these conditions.
This study was limited by time and its cross-sectional design, such that long-term follow-up that could enable assessing resilience and self-esteem in each phase of the cardiovascular disease was not possible. Additionally, only those patients admitted to the hospital chosen for this study were included, hence, these results cannot be generalized to other clinical settings.
Nevertheless, this study's results enabled understanding some relevant emotional characteristics of patients with cardiovascular diseases, so that nurses and other healthcare professionals can expand their work possibilities, with interventions focused on the psychosocial conditions of patients, helping them to deal with their disease in a better way by adopting a more positive lifestyle.
Additionally, the results show the need for future clinical studies to test programs designed to strengthen cognitive and emotional skills, producing new scientific evidence to implement in practice. Conclusion In conclusion, this study's results present some psychosocial characteristics of patients with cardiovascular diseases.
Women more frequently present anxiety and depression symptoms and higher self-esteem, while men are more resilient. Patients of both sexes with depression symptoms and women with anxiety were associated with lower scores for resilience. Self-esteem levels were higher among men and women with anxiety. This study has important implications for clinical practice and for nursing research, as it points out ways to improve approaches for patients in a hospital setting and directs future studies addressing interventions intended to improve coping with adversities and promoting a positive perception of oneself.
Brazilian Strategic Action Plan to Combat Chronic Non-communicable Diseases and the global targets set to confront these diseases by Predictors of hospitalization and quality of life in heart failure: A model of comorbidity, self-efficacy and self-care. Int J Nurs Stud. The efficacy of resilience training programs: A methodological review of resilience measurement scales. Health Qual Life Outcomes.
Wagnild GM, Young H. Development and psychometric evaluation of the resilience scale. Stress resilience and physical fitness in adolescence and risk of coronary heart disease in middle age.
The mental health and quality of life of adult patients with congenital heart disease. Exercise capacity, quality of life, and resilience after repair of tetralogy of Fallot: Resilience in chronic heart failure. Psychiatric morbidity among medical in-patients: Rev Soc Bras Cir Plast. Similar gender differences have previously been reported in research on resilience Feingold, ; Werner, Since this is 0.
These findings were the first time that many of these measures have been similar to those obtained in previous studies with this employed with this age group, the significance level was measure on younger adolescents. Boys reported significantly higher scores on Personal Competence than girls, while girls reported sig- Levels of Resilience and Psychiatric Symptoms nificantly higher score on Social Resources, Family Table 1 presents the number of items in each scale or Cohesion, total DASS scores and on the levels of factors, scale or factor means M and standard deviations depressive symptoms than boys.
SD for the measures of resilience, depression, anxiety, stress and obsessive—compulsive symptoms. Finally, the results Table 3 contains correlations among gender, resilience, obtained from the OCI-R was similar to that of a recent depression, anxiety, stress and obsessive—compulsive study Hajcak et al.
Age was not significantly related to any of the measures and is not reported. Small, but significant positive correla- tions were found for female gender with obsessive— Gender Differences for Resilience and Psychiatric compulsive symptoms, depression, stress, Social Symptoms Resources and Family Cohesion. Personal Competence Table 2 presents the results for gender differences for was significantly negatively related to female gender.
The sizes of Table 1. In the first analy- Depression 7 0. Age Stress 7 0. The only exception was that female gender was significantly related Table 2. Female gender — 2. Spearmans rho utilized for correlations with gender.
Resilience and Adolescent Symptoms to higher depression scores. However, the results indi- distressed and have lower sense of mastery in their lives. The READ measures aspects of mastery and ability hierarchical multiple regression analyses were under- to abandon rumination with the items included Personal taken only substituting the total resilience score with the Competence subscale where boys report higher scores subscale scores.
The results indicated that all subscales than girls. In addition the two interpersonal READ sub- were also significantly predictive of most symptoms.
This may indi- nificantly predict obsessive—compulsive symptoms. Higher resil- acceptable, and further studies are warranted to explore ience scores on personal dispositions, the availability of these two factors in similar samples. The mean levels of sources of social support outside the family, as well as resilience obtained with high school adolescents in the perceived levels of family cohesion showed consistent present study, were very similar to that obtained in previ- and important significant relationships to levels of depres- ous studies of Norwegian junior high school adolescents sion, anxiety, stress and obsessive—compulsive symptoms Hjemdal et al.
This extends previous findings when controlling for age and gender differences. The with younger adolescent samples that found moderate to presence of these protective factors is associated with strong correlations between resilience and measures of lower levels of stress and psychiatric symptoms. These findings are now extended and indicate that total resilience score, there were no gender differences, there is an interesting covariation between levels of pro- but there were, however, gender differences found for tection and more general levels of depressive and anxiety three of the subscales of resilience.
Female pupils reported symptoms as well as obsessive—compulsive symptoms. Total resilience scores adults Friborg et al. In the first study which followed children to adulthood over 32 years prospective study done with college youths Hjemdal, Werner, These findings after a 3-month interval.
Nolen-Hoeksema, Larson and remains to be seen if similar results can be obtained with Grayson found that females carry a triad of vulner- high school youths. Even though there is a large propor- abilities to depressive symptoms compared with males.
Perhaps and may add a significant contribution to future studies the third option with a general strengthening would be exploring the relation between mental health and psychi- indicated. This is also true R. Psychometric properties of the item and item when controlling for age and gender. However, social versions of the Depression anxiety stress scales in clinical competence was not significantly related to symptoms groups and a community sample. Psychological Assessment, 10, of levels of depressive symptoms.
This may be partially — Cognitive therapy for challenging problems: Confirmatory factor gender in this sample. Furthermore, the personal disposi- analysis of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales in depressed tion associated with having a structured style was not and anxious patients.
Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral significantly related to the levels of obsessive—compulsive Assessment, 23, 61— In other words, being structured and system- Cicchetti, D. Development and Psychopathology, In D.
Anxiety, depression, resilience and self-esteem in individuals with cardiovascular diseases
Cohen EdsDevelopmental Psychopathology 2d sive—compulsive symptoms. However, the interpretation ed. Theory and Method, Volume 1 pp. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, administration mode, as questionnaires were filled out in 50— Multiple levels of disclosure.
Furthermore, there was no prospective data analysis [Special issue]. Development and Psychopathology, 14 3collected with this sample. There is no necessary causal — Reflecting on the past relation between the resilience factors and the psychiatric and planning for the future of developmental psychopathol- symptoms measured since they are measured at the same ogy [Special issue].
Development and Psychopathology, 12 3time and only are an indication of intercorrelation. However, these factors have been corroborated by previ- Compas, B. The Adolescent Perceived Events Scale. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, — Resilience as a process.
Gender differences in personality: A meta- In sum, the findings of this study suggest that resilience analysis. Psychological Bulletin,— Mental health, educa- chiatric disorders in a high school sample. Taken together tional, and social role outcomes of adolescents with depres- with evidence from previous research, this suggests that sion. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59 3— Psychological health problems like depression, anxiety, stress, obses- Assessment, 14, — The validation of a new obsessive—compulsive disorder health or increase stress resistance.
Psychological Assessment, 10, — Resilience in relation to personality and people. Equally, patients that are helpless and inefficient intelligence. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric but likable need to engage in mastery experiences. Based Research, 14, 29— Resilience as a measure of prevention intervention that may be subject to further adaptive capacity.
Journal of Norwegian Psychological Association, 41, — A new rating scale for adult resilience: What are the related strengths. Would strengthening intrapersonal central protective resources behind healthy adjustment?
International Journal of Population Research
Resilience as a moderator of In C. Lopez EdsHandbook of positive psychol- pain and stress. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 61, — Psychometric proper- the gender difference in depressive symptoms. Journal of ties of the Spanish version of the Obsessive—Compulsive Personality and Social Psychology, 77 5— Inventory-Revised in a non-clinical sample.