Food security - Wikipedia
It also examines how the relationship between food insecurity and violent crime varies . poverty, food price volatility, climate change, and violent conflict. On the . In this paper, the authors discuss the linkages between poverty, food security, and . They also find an inverted U relationship between migration and the per. Poverty rates were halved between and , but one billion people Poverty and food security were linked in Millennium Development.
This relationship may not hold in all populations, however, and may vary, depending on coping strategies adopted in response to food insecurity. Obesity has been clearly linked to numerous poor health outcomes such as high blood pressure, diabetes and heart disease, all of which increase morbidity and premature mortality 7.
Over the past decade, the prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically in the United States and reduction of obesity has been identified as a national health priority 78. Given its potential impacts on health, understanding the relationship between obesity and food insecurity is essential.
The CWHS, an ongoing telephone survey, collects self-reported information on a variety of health-related behaviors, attitudes and outcomes in women in California.
All interviewers were trained in standard procedures for administering the CWHS The survey was administered in English or Spanish, depending on participants' preferences, with most participants selecting English. This study was determined to be exempt from review by the Committee for the Protection of Human Subjects at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Assessment of food insecurity. In both survey years, food insecurity was evaluated using a subset of four questions Table 1 adapted from the U. Women with zero or one affirmative response were classified as food secure, those with two or three affirmative responses as food insecure without hunger and those with four affirmative responses as food insecure with hunger.
Severe food insecurity could not be evaluated using the subset of questions included in the and CWHS. TABLE 1 Food security questions asked in the California Women's Health Survey, — For two questions, the interviewer made a statement about a phenomenon, then asked about its frequency in the last 12 mo: For the two remaining questions, the interviewer asked a question about conditions in the last 12 mo: In the last 12 months, did you ever eat less than you felt you should because there wasn't enough money to buy food?
In the last 12 months, were you ever hungry but didn't eat because you couldn't afford enough food?
For two questions, the interviewer made a statement about a phenomenon, then asked about its frequency in the last 12 mo: Nations don't have to have the natural resources required to produce crops in order to achieve food security, as seen in the examples of Japan   and Singapore. Food distribution involves the storage, processing, transport, packaging, and marketing of food.
This creates the need for a bartering, exchange, or cash economy to acquire food. Food access refers to the affordability and allocation of food, as well as the preferences of individuals and households.
In order to achieve food security, the food ingested must be safe and must be enough to meet the physiological requirements of each individual. Food insecurity can be transitory, seasonal, or chronic. Civil conflicts can also decrease access to food. Other factors that can temporarily cause food insecurity are loss of employment or productivity, which can be caused by illness.
Seasonal food insecurity can result from the regular pattern of growing seasons in food production. Chronic and transitory food insecurity are linked, since the reoccurrence of transitory food security can make households more vulnerable to chronic food insecurity. Chronic food insecurity translates into a high degree of vulnerability to famine and hunger; ensuring food security presupposes elimination of that vulnerability.
Malnutrition Children with symptoms of low calorie and protein intake and a nurse attendant at a Nigerian orphanage in the late s Many countries experience ongoing food shortages and distribution problems. These result in chronic and often widespread hunger amongst significant numbers of people. Human populations can respond to chronic hunger and malnutrition by decreasing body size, known in medical terms as stunting or stunted growth. It leads to higher infant and child mortality, but at rates far lower than during famines.
Stunting itself can be viewed as a coping mechanism, bringing body size into alignment with the calories available during adulthood in the location where the child is born.
Challenges to achieving food security[ edit ] Global water crisis[ edit ] See also: Water resource policy Irrigation canals have opened dry desert areas of Egypt to agriculture. Water deficitswhich are already spurring heavy grain imports in numerous smaller countries,  may soon do the same in larger countries, such as China or India.
Other countries affected include Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Iran. This will eventually lead to water scarcity and cutbacks in grain harvest. Even with the overpumping of its aquifersChina is developing a grain deficit.
Most of the 3 billion people projected to be born worldwide by mid-century will be born in countries already experiencing water shortages. After China and India, there is a second tier of smaller countries with large water deficits — Afghanistan, Algeria, Egypt, Iran, Mexico, and Pakistan.
Four of these already import a large share of their grain. Only Pakistan remains self-sufficient. But with a population expanding by 4 million a year, it will likely soon turn to the world market for grain.
Multimillion-dollar investments beginning in the s by the World Bank have reclaimed desert and turned the Ica Valley in Peru, one of the driest places on earth, into the largest supplier of asparagus in the world.
However, the constant irrigation has caused a rapid drop in the water table, in some places as much as eight meters per year, one of the fastest rates of aquifer depletion in the world. The wells of small farmers and local people are beginning to run dry and the water supply for the main city in the valley is under threat. As a cash crop, asparagus has provided jobs for local people, but most of the money goes to the buyers, mainly the British.
A report concluded that the industry is not sustainable and accuses investors, including the World Bank, of failing to take proper responsibility for the effect of their decisions on the water resources of poorer countries. Land degradation and Desertification Intensive farming often leads to a vicious cycle of exhaustion of soil fertility and decline of agricultural yields. Climate change and agriculture Extreme events, such as droughts and floods, are forecast to increase as climate change and global warming takes hold.
Lessons from the IPCC SREX Report, the effects will include changing productivity and livelihood patterns, economic losses, and effects on infrastructure, markets and food security.
Food security in future will be linked to our ability to adapt agricultural systems to extreme events. An example of a shifting weather pattern would be a rise in temperatures. As temperatures rise due to climate change there is a risk of a diminished food supply due to heat damage.
From this the price of grain will rise, along with the developing nations trying to grow the grain.
Poverty and food security | Global Education
Due to this, every 2—2. The timing and length of the growing seasons, when farmers plant their crops, are going to be changing dramatically, per the USDA, due to unknown changes in soil temperature and moisture conditions. His approach is to explore the vulnerability of food systems to climate change and he defines vulnerability to climate change as situations that occur when relatively minor environmental problems cause major effects on food security.
Examples of this include the Irish Potato Famine  [ dubious — discuss ], which was caused by a rainy year that created ideal conditions for the fungal blight to spread in potato fields, or the Ethiopian Famine in the early s.
Inthe hungry population could range from million to million with climate change Chen et al. By the yearCereal crops will decrease from 15 to 19 percent, temperatures are estimated to rise from 1 degrees Celsius to 2. In prediction farming countries will be the worst sectors hit, hot countries and drought countries will reach even higher temperatures and richer countries will be hit the least as they have more access to more resources Devereux et al.
From a food security perspective, climate change is the dominant rationale to the increase in recent years and predicted years to come. Agricultural diseases[ edit ] Diseases affecting livestock or crops can have devastating effects on food availability especially if there are no contingency plans in place. In their centers of origin wild wheat plants are screened for resistance to rust, then their genetic information is studied and finally wild plants and modern varieties are crossed through means of modern plant breeding in order to transfer the resistance genes from the wild plants to the modern varieties.
Food versus fuel Farmland and other agricultural resources have long been used to produce non-food crops including industrial materials such as cottonflaxand rubber; drug crops such as tobacco and opiumand biofuels such as firewoodetc. In the 21st century the production of fuel crops has increased, adding to this diversion.