Separation Anxiety and its Relation to Parental Attachment Styles among Children
PDF | Literature suggests that parent-child attachment and anxiety symptoms are related. through: Parent And Child Relationships In Middle Childhood Children in grades 3 and 5 (N = 74) completed measures of secure. Maternal Anxiety: Mother-child interactions in this context are qualitatively different () examined the relationship between children's attachment styles and. Therefore, the scales of separation anxiety and parental attachment were and its Relation to Parental Attachment Styles among Children.
In addition, there were differences in avoidant and secure styles due to gender in favor of the females and in the anxious one in favor of the males. Youssef and Ibrahim 16 examined the relationship between attachment styles and cognitive methods meditation - impulsiveness and reliability — autonomy among university students. Results showed that participants preferred secure attachment to the avoidant and anxious ones.
They also preferred cognitive style more than impulsiveness. Moreover, there was a relationship between attachment secure-avoidant and cognitive method reliability — autonomy. Abu Ghazal and Floah 17 investigated the most common attachment style and the most frequent method used to resolve social problems among adolescent students, exploring whether there were significant differences between attachment styles and methods of resolving social problems according to gender and age group.
This study also identified the relationship between attachment styles and social problems solving among adolescent students. Results showed that the most common attachment style was the secure one and that the rational solution was frequently used to solve social problems. In addition, there were differences related to gender in anxious attachment style in favor of the males. Results demonstrated that adolescents had a high level of attachment.
Additionally, there was a difference between the averages of males and females on attachment styles. Results indicated a correlation between anxious as well as avoidant attachment and future anxiety, while there was no correlation between secure attachment and future anxiety.
Accordingly, it is obvious that most literature handled attachment, in general, while one study tackled parental attachment This shows the difference between the present study and the other studies.
It also shows the importance of attachment, in general, and parental attachment, in particular. Parental attachment is fundamental to the individual's future personality as well as social security and passion. Hence, there is a relationship between attachment styles and separation anxiety as an important variable in the psychological development of the individual.
The degree of separation anxiety is defined according to the style and nature of the child's attachment to the caregiver. Consequently, the inverse relationship between the degrees of attachment and separation anxiety is apparent The child should have emotional stability to cope up with the difficult circumstances due to the deprivation of father or mother and to encounter life hardships effectively.
Consequently, deprivation may significantly impact the child's psyche, behavior, and personality. Thus, the child's trust in the self and others is strongly affected. Separation anxiety is the state of uneasiness, confusion, and worries which results from the constant fear of losing close persons. That is, children are only concerned about losing a close one Authors identified several and interrelated causes of separation anxiety, including genetics, family and learning, as well as psychological and social factors Separation anxiety disorders comprise several styles Children prefer to grasp the interest of others.
The child protests and cries due to separation from the father or the mother. The child removes all emotions and feelings towards the absent individual. Salman and Hussein 28 argued that many theories addressed separation anxiety, such as: Ethologists consider it a natural human characteristic, such as anxiety or fear of strangers. It emphasizes the importance of the relationship between mother and child from birth to the age of two months when children get into autism and see their mother as a factor that satisfies their basic needs.
The Effect of Maternal Anxiety on Mother-Child Attachment
It handles the relationship between the child and parents, as well as its impact on the child's mental, physical, and emotional health. The author adopted the attachment and correlation theory by Bolby because it elaborately handles the concept, sources, components, and the possibility of measuring separation anxiety through its fields.
Furthermore, it is accurate, concise, and comprehensive. According to Hisham 26the following approaches and methods can be used to treat separation anxiety: Exposing children to fearful situations related to separation in order to prevent anxiety response and to develop a cognitive strategy and relaxation exercises to enable children to control anxiety.
Convincing parents that it is a psychological disorder not a type of delicacy and its treatment requires understanding rather than strictness. It is adopted with cases associated with specific environmental situations, such as concern about going to school. It requires coordination between parents and teachers.
- Anxiety and depression
Understanding the unconscious meaning of the symptoms experienced by the child as well as reinforcing the child's personality to cope up with separation anxiety situations through psychological sessions at the psychiatric clinic.
The doctor gives the child some psychological drugs that reduce the fear of separation.
According to the statistics, anxiety disorders are one of the most common psychological diseases that currently affect young people. Researches indicate that 1.
Various researches addressed it because it is one of the diseases which all individuals may catch 28 Therefore, several studies have been conducted to clarify the relationship between separation anxiety and many variables. For example, Salih and Al-Sumairi 30 investigated the relationship between separation anxiety and self-confidence among parentless children in Gaza Governorates.
Results revealed a negative correlation between separation anxiety and self-confidence among the parentless children and there were differences in the overall degree of separation anxiety scale in favor of females.
Furthermore, there were significant differences between both genders in the total degree of self-confidence scale in favor of males. Results showed no differences between separation anxiety for parents and adolescents. Al-Qureshi 29 developed a scale to measure separation anxiety among the children who lost their parents in terrorist and military acts.
Results demonstrated that participants suffered from separation anxiety that affected the females more than the males.
Nasser 32 studied separation anxiety among kindergarten children in Muthanna Governorate as well as differences in the variables of the study according to gender males and females. Results showed high indicators of separation anxiety among kindergarten children. In addition, there were statistically significant differences in separation anxiety according to gender males and females in favor of the females.
Furthermore, some studies tackled the relationship between separation anxiety and family disorders, such as: Hijazi 33 showed that the child, who lost one or both parents, feels deprived and deficient. Not only actual separation but also threat creates anxiety.Child Anxiety, It’s Real
The greater the threat is, the greater the attachment becomes. Hajaj 34 examined the psychological impact of father's absence due to divorce or separation on children aged Results showed differences between students living with both parents and parentless students in anxiety degree in favor of the parentless ones.
Several studies have handled the close relationship between the child's attachment to the important person in his life and the excessive anxiety about separation.
For example, Weems et al.
Results indicated that all school and university students with insecure attachment had a high degree of separation anxiety. However, individuals with secure attachment style showed a low degree of anxiety. Orion 36 examined the relationship between the manifestations of attachment and separation among children. Results indicated positive correlations between the degree of attachment among children and the development of autonomy and self-control feelings.
Dallaire and Weinraub 37 explored the predictive ability of attachment to mothers, and its relationship to separation anxiety. Results showed that children with insecure attachment showed a higher degree of separation anxiety, whereas those with secure attachment showed a lower degree. Moreover, children with avoidant attachment had the highest degree. In addition, separation anxiety was the highest when attachment got more secure.
Results showed a strong correlation between attachment styles and separation anxiety compared to the relationship between attachment styles and panic disorder. Furthermore, the participants with insecure attachment had a high degree of separation anxiety. Results indicated that the level of separation anxiety among children was moderate, the most prominent style was secure attachment, and correlation coefficients between these variables were generally moderate.
In addition, differences in the level of separation anxiety were attributed to age.
Anxiety and depression: Parent-child relationship | Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development
Moreover, the difference in the degree of avoidant style was attributed to residence duration in the village. Mother-child interactions characterized by similar differences are theorized to lead to the development of insecure attachment in children i.
Therefore, since maternal anxiety influences mother-child interactions in a similar style which is theorized to promote insecure attachment, the effect of maternal anxiety on infant attachment style has been examined. Maternal anxiety was assessed using a battery of questionnaires prenatally. The results demonstrated that those mothers who had higher prenatal anxiety scores were more likely to have insecurely attached infants when compared to those who had lower anxiety scores.
The Atkinson et al.
Manassis, Bradley, Goldberg, Hood and Swinson used an experimental design to investigate a clinical population of 18 anxious mothers and the attachment classification of their 20 children aged 18 to 59 months. All maternal diagnoses were conducted using the SCID. Measures of maternal attachment and mother-child attachment style were taken using the Adult Attachment Interview and the SSP, respectively. After reclassifying the disorganized children to their secondary classification, the results showed that 11 of the 20 children had an insecure attachment style.
Specifically, six had a resistant attachment style and five had an avoidant style. Finally, three children in the sample were reported to have an anxiety disorder diagnosis; notably, two had an avoidant and one had a resistant attachment style. Although this study was limited by its sample size and lack of a comparison group, it does suggest a possible link between anxiety disorder in mothers and insecure attachment style in their children. Further investigation into the relationship between mother-child interactions and child attachment by Corriveau et al.
Behavioral Inhibition and Child Anxiety Resistant children showed the most dependency on their mothers, asking their opinion most frequently; they were followed by securely attached children, with avoidant children showing the least dependency.
In relation to maternal trust, avoidant children showed the least trust in their mother followed by secure and resistant children were the most trusting.