Newton and Hooke | Newton @ Edward Worth Library
Hooke claimed that what was correct in Newton's theory was stolen from his own ideas This marked the beginning of severe arguments between the two. ROBERT HOOKE'S letter to Isaac Newton of 9 December I forms a part The relationship between Newton and Hooke was never friendly, though it is. Robert Hooke discovered the cell, established experimentation as crucial to own Hooke's Law, which deals with the relationship between the stress and More than any other scientist before Newton, Hooke seems to have.
It has been suggested that Hooke probably made the observations and may well have developed the mathematics of Boyle's law.
A chance surviving copy of Willis' pioneering De anima brutorum, a gift from the author, was chosen by Hooke from Wilkins' library on his death as a memento at John Tillotson 's invitation.
This book is now in the Wellcome Library. The book and its inscription in Hooke's hand are a testament to the lasting influence of Wilkins and his circle on the young Hooke. Royal Society The Royal Society was founded inand in April the society debated a short tract on the rising of water in slender glass pipes, in which Hooke reported that the height water rose was related to the bore of the pipe due to what is now termed capillary action.
His explanation of this phenomenon was subsequently published in Micrography Observ. On 5 NovemberSir Robert Moray proposed that a Curator be appointed to furnish the society with Experiments, and this was unanimously passed with Hooke being named.
His appointment was made on 12 November, with thanks recorded to Dr. Boyle for releasing him to the Society's employment. InSir John Cutler settled an annual gratuity of fifty pounds on the Society for the founding of a Mechanick Lecture, and the Fellows appointed Hooke to this task.
Among his earliest demonstrations were discussions of the nature of air, the implosion of glass bubbles which had been sealed with comprehensive hot air, and demonstrating that the Pabulum vitae and flammae were one and the same. He also demonstrated that a dog could be kept alive with its thorax opened, provided air was pumped in and out of its lungs, and noting the difference between venous and arterial blood. Instruments were devised to measure a second of arc in the movement of the sun or other stars, to measure the strength of gunpowderand in particular an engine to cut teeth for watches, much finer than could be managed by hand, an invention which was, by Hooke's death, in constant use.
Hooke received the degree of "Doctor of Physic" in December Jenkins points out a number of errors in Robison's article, and questions whether the correspondent might in fact have been Newton, whom Hooke is known to have corresponded with, the name being misread as Newcomen. A search by Mr. H W Dickinson of Hooke's papers held by the Royal Society, which had been bound together in the middle of the 18th century, i.
In the intervening years since no such evidence has been found, but the story persists. For instance, in a book published in it is said that in a letter dated Hooke did suggest that Newcomen use condensing steam to drive the piston. His reputation suffered after his death and this is popularly attributed to a dispute with Isaac Newton over credit for his work on gravitation, the planets and to a lesser degree light.
His dispute with Oldenburg about whether Oldenburg had leaked or passed on details of Hooke's watch escapement to others is another well-known example. Newton, as President of the Royal Society, did much to obscure Hooke, including, it is said, destroying or failing to preserve the only known portrait of the man.
Robert Hooke and the Wrath of Isaac Newton
It did not help that the first biography of Wren, Parentalia, was written by Wren's son, and tended to exaggerate Wren's work over all others. Hooke's reputation was revived during the twentieth century through studies of Robert Gunther and Margaret 'Espinasse. After a long period of relative obscurity he has now been recognised as one of the most important scientists of his age.
As curator of Experiments to the Royal Society he was responsible for demonstrating many ideas sent in to the Society, and there is evidence that he would subsequently assume some credit for these ideas. This was a time of immense scientific progress, and numerous ideas were developed in several places simultaneously. None of this should distract from Hooke's inventiveness, his remarkable experimental facility, and his capacity for hard work.
His ideas about gravitation, and his claim of priority for the inverse square law, are outlined below. He was granted a large number of patents for inventions and refinements in the fields of elasticity, optics, and barometry.
The Royal Society's Hooke papers recently discovered after disappearing when Newton took over will open up a modern reassessment.
Robert Hooke - relations with Isaac Newton
Diagram of a louse from Hooke's Micrographia Much has been written about the unpleasant side of Hooke's personality, starting with comments by his first biographer, Richard Waller, that Hooke was "in person, but despicable" and "melancholy, mistrustful, and jealous. For example, Arthur Berry said that Hooke "claimed credit for most of the scientific discoveries of the time. She writes that "the picture which is usually painted of Hooke as a morose and envious recluse is completely false.
Hooke often met Christopher Wrenwith whom he shared many interests, and had a lasting friendship with John Aubrey. Hooke's diaries also make frequent reference to meetings at coffeehouses and taverns, and to dinners with Robert Boyle. He took tea on many occasions with his lab assistant, Harry Hunt.
Within his family, Hooke took both a niece and a cousin into his home, teaching them mathematics. He never married, but his diary records that he had sexual relations with his niece, Grace, and several of his housekeepers.
He at one point records that one of these housekeepers gave birth to a girl, but doesn't note the paternity of the child. Although he had talked of leaving a generous bequest to the Royal Society which would have given his name to a library, laboratory and lectures, no will was found and the money passed to an illiterate cousin, Elizabeth Stephens. Science Hooke's drawing of a flea Mechanics InHooke discovered the law of elasticity which bears his name and which describes the linear variation of tension with extension in an elastic spring.
He first described this discovery in the anagram "ceiiinosssttuv", whose solution he published in  as "Ut tensio, sic vis" meaning "As the extension, so the force.
A bitter dispute between Hooke and Christiaan Huygens on the priority of this invention was to continue for centuries after the death of both; but a note dated 23 June in the Hooke Folio see External links belowdescribing a demonstration of a balance-controlled watch before the Royal Society, has been held to favour Hooke's claim.
This was a method sometimes used by scientists, such as Hooke, Huygens, Galileoand others, to establish priority for a discovery without revealing details. This was a position he held for over 40 years. While this position kept him in the thick of science in Britain and beyond, it also led to some heated arguments with other scientists, such as Huygens see above and particularly with Isaac Newton and the Royal Society's Henry Oldenburg. He ran a bow along the edge of a glass plate covered with flour, and saw the nodal patterns emerge.
Hooke's Royal Society lecture on gravity added two further principles: It is founded on the following positions. That all the heavenly bodies have not only a gravitation of their parts to their own proper centre, but that they also mutually attract each other within their spheres of action.
That all bodies having a simple motion, will continue to move in a straight line, unless continually deflected from it by some extraneous force, causing them to describe a circle, an ellipse, or some other curve.
That this attraction is so much the greater as the bodies are nearer. As to the proportion in which those forces diminish by an increase of distance, I own I have not discovered it Hooke published his ideas about the "System of the World" again in somewhat developed form inas an addition to "An Attempt to Prove the Motion of the Earth from Observations".
Hooke's statements up to made no mention, however, that an inverse square law applies or might apply to these attractions.
Hooke, Newton, and the ‘missing’ portrait
Hooke's gravitation was also not yet universal, though it approached universality more closely than previous hypotheses. On these two aspects, Hooke stated in Newton's reply offered "a fansy of my own" about a terrestrial experiment not a proposal about celestial motions which might detect the Earth's motion, by the use of a body first suspended in air and then dropped to let it fall.
The main point was to indicate how Newton thought the falling body could experimentally reveal the Earth's motion by its direction of deviation from the vertical, but he went on hypothetically to consider how its motion could continue if the solid Earth had not been in the way on a spiral path to the centre.
Hooke disagreed with Newton's idea of how the body would continue to move. At the same time according to Edmond Halley 's contemporary report Hooke agreed that "the Demonstration of the Curves generated therby" was wholly Newton's. This in turn makes it understandable how indecades after the deaths of both Newton and Hooke, Alexis Clairautmathematical astronomer eminent in his own right in the field of gravitational studies, made his assessment after reviewing what Hooke had published on gravitation.
Anchor escapement Anchor escapement Inaccording to his autobiographical notes, Hooke began to acquaint himself with astronomy, through the good offices of John Ward.
Hooke applied himself to the improvement of the pendulum and in orhe began to improve on pendulum mechanisms, studying the work of Giovanni Riccioliand going on to study both gravitation and the mechanics of timekeeping.
Henry Sully, writing in Paris indescribed the anchor escapement as an admirable invention of which Dr. Hooke, formerly professor of geometry in Gresham College at London, was the inventor. In the process, Hooke demonstrated a pocket-watch of his own devising, fitted with a coil spring attached to the arbour of the balance.
Hooke's ultimate failure to secure sufficiently lucrative terms for the exploitation of this idea resulted in its being shelved, and evidently caused him to become more jealous of his inventions. Microscopy Hooke's microscope In Hooke published Micrographiaa book describing observations made with microscopes and telescopesas well as some original work in biology.
Hooke coined the term cell for describing biological organisms, the term being suggested by the resemblance of plant cells to cells of a honeycomb. He was a longtime president of the Royal Society, showing the regard in which his scientific work was held.
However, he also had a powerful rival: The two clashed bitterly in attempts to forge reputations as the greatest scientific minds of their age. In life this battle may have been a close run thing, but through history Newton became the undisputed winner.
The first signs of conflict between these two massive egos came inwhen Newton submitted his first paper to the Royal Society. Correspondence between the two became increasingly acrimonious; a major rivalry had started. This simmering tension exploded when Newton published his Principia incontaining his Law of Universal Gravitation.
Hooke was one of the key figures behind it in the s, suggesting the planets were attracted to the Sun, and that this force of attraction got stronger the closer the objects were together. A bitter dispute unfolded, Hooke trying to gain credit for his influence, Newton denying it with the exception of a cursory mention in the third volume of Principia. In part, Hooke was a victim of his own approach: An innovator who often failed to solidify his theories into something tangible and timeless, allowing his contributions to be overshadowed.
In Hooke died, with some medical historians suggesting he suffered from diabetes in his later years. Sometimes Hooke was justified in his anger, sometimes not.