House of Lords - Wikipedia
In this lesson, we will take a close look at the British Parliament, paying special attention to the membership and roles of the House of. In the wake of the Government's defeat on tax credits in the House of Lords, the House of Commons Library has published a briefing paper. Members of the Commons (MPs) debate the big political issues of the Visitors to Parliament always notice a striking difference between.
Infor example, it passed a statute decreeing that Parliament must approve all taxation. And, inafter years of internal struggle for power between the monarchy and Parliament, the legislative body voted to depose King Richard II, enabling Henry IV to assume the throne.
By this time, citizens were given the power to vote to elect their representatives—the burgesses—to the House of Commons. Wentworth, a Puritanlater clashed with Elizabeth I over issues related to religious freedom during his time as an M. It is this persecution that led the Puritans to leave England for the New World in the s, helping to settle the colonies that became the United States. English Civil War For much of the 17th century, the United Kingdom experienced a great deal of change and political turmoil.
Arguably, the one constant was Parliament. From tothe country was mired in a drawn-out Civil War and, for a time, military leader Oliver Cromwell assumed power under the title Lord Protector. The ruling monarch at the time, Charles Iwas executed in Cromwell is best known for conquering Scotland and Ireland and bringing them, unwillingly, under the dominion of the United Kingdom.
Still, those two nations had their own Parliaments, made up of Cromwell supporters. Parliament continued to retain some power during this period of change. Four years later, though, Cromwell disbanded the Rump Parliament and created the Nominated Assembly, a de facto legislature.
British Parliament - HISTORY
Cromwell died in and was replaced by his son Richard. New Parliamentary elections were held. However, religion was a major issue dividing English government and society. After years of political in-fighting, Parliament deposed James II inand his eldest daughter Mary and her husband William Prince of Orange ascended to the throne.
Whilst some hereditary peers were at best apathetic, the Labour Party's clear commitments were not lost on Merlin Hanbury-Tracy, 7th Baron Sudeleywho for decades was considered an expert on the House of Lords.
Reform of the House of Lords First admission of women[ edit ] There were no women sitting in the House of Lords untilwhen a small number came into the chamber as a result of the Life Peerages Act One of these was Irene Curzon, 2nd Baroness Ravensdalewho had inherited her father's peerage in and was made a life peer to enable her to sit.
After a campaign stretching back in some cases to the s, another twelve women who held hereditary peerages in their own right were finally admitted by the Peerage Act The Labour Government introduced legislation to expel all hereditary peers from the Upper House as a first step in Lords reform. As a part of a compromise, however, it agreed to permit 92 hereditary peers to remain until the reforms were complete. Thus all but 92 hereditary peers were expelled under the House of Lords Act see below for its provisionsmaking the House of Lords predominantly an appointed house.
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- Parliament explains the relationship between the Commons and Lords
Sincehowever, no further reform has taken place. Socialist MPs favouring outright abolition voted against all the options. Most of the remainder were to be appointed by a Commission to ensure a mix of "skills, knowledge and experience". This proposal was also not implemented. A cross-party campaign initiative called " Elect the Lords " was set up to make the case for a predominantly elected Second Chamber in the run up to the general election.
At the election, the Labour Party proposed further reform of the Lords, but without specific details. Duringa cross-party committee discussed Lords reform, with the aim of reaching a consensus: Significantly this last vote represented an overall majority of MPs. But this was nevertheless only an indicative vote and many political and legislative hurdles remained to be overcome for supporters of an elected second chamber. The House of Lords, soon after, rejected this proposal and voted for an entirely appointed House of Lords.
It goes on to explain that there is cross-party consensus for the new chamber to be titled the "Senate of the United Kingdom"; however, to ensure the debate remains on the role of the upper house rather than its title, the white paper is neutral on the title of the new house.
On 30 Novembera Code of Conduct for Members of the House of Lords was agreed by them; certain amendments were agreed by them on 30 March and on 12 June The House of Lords, she argues, currently has enough power to make it relevant. During Tony Blair's first year, he was defeated 38 times in the Lords.
Secondly, as to the composition of the Lords, Meg Russell suggests that the composition must be distinct from the Commons, otherwise it would render the Lords useless. The third feature is the perceived legitimacy of the Lords. She writes, "In general legitimacy comes with election. If this happens, then the perceived legitimacy of the Lords could arguably outweigh the legitimacy of the Commons.
This would especially be the case if the House of Lords had been elected more recently than the House of Commons as it could be said to reflect the will of the people better than the Commons. This would in turn trigger questions about the amount of power the Lords should have and there would be pressure for it to increase. This hypothetical process is known as the "circumnavigation of power theory". It implies that it would never be in any government's interest to legitimise the Lords, as they would be forfeiting their own power.
These proposals sparked a debate on 29 June As an interim measure, appointment of new peers would reflect the shares of the vote secured by the political parties in the last general election. The details of the proposal were: The reformed House of Lords should have members of whom are "Elected Members" and 60 appointed "Independent Members".
Up to 12 Church of England bishops may sit in the house as ex officio "Lords Spiritual". Elections to the reformed Lords should take place at the same time as elections to the House of Commons. Elected Members should be elected using the Single Transferable Vote system of proportional representation.
Twenty Independent Members a third shall take their seats within the reformed house at the same time as elected members do so, and for the same year term. Independent Members will be appointed by the Queen after being proposed by the Prime Minister acting on advice of an Appointments Commission.
There will no longer be a link between the peerage system and membership of the upper house.How does the House of Lords work? Jump Start
The current powers of the House of Lords would not change and the House of Commons shall retain its status as the primary House of Parliament. The proposals were considered by a Joint Committee on House of Lords Reform made up of both MPs and Peers, which issued its final report on 23 Aprilmaking the following suggestions: Party groupings, including the Crossbenchers, should choose which of their members are retained in the transition period, with the percentage of members allotted to each group based on their share of the peers with high attendance during a given period.
Up to 12 Lords Spiritual should be retained in a reformed House of Lords. House of Lords Reform Act [ edit ] A private members bill to introduce some reforms was introduced by Dan Byles in All peers can retire or resign from the chamber prior to this only hereditary peers could disclaim their peerages. Peers can be disqualified for non-attendance.
Parliament explains the relationship between the Commons and Lords
Peers can be removed for receiving prison sentences of a year or more. Lords Spiritual Women Act [ edit ] See also: Women in the House of Lords This act makes provision to preferentially admit bishops of the Church of England who are women to the Lords Spiritual in the 10 years following its commencement. Overcrowding[ edit ] The size of the House of Lords has varied greatly throughout its history.
From about members in the early s,  it increased to a record size of 1, in Octoberbefore Lords reform reduced it to by March He had created new peers since becoming prime minister in Maya faster rate of elevation than any PM in British history.
The expansion occurred while his government had tried in vain to reduce the size of the House of Commons by 50 members, from to This made the House of Lords the largest parliamentary chamber in any democracy.
She also criticised successive prime ministers for filling the second chamber with "lobby fodder" in an attempt to help their policies become law. She made her remarks days before a new batch of peers were due to be created. In a report entitled Does size matter?