difference between 'guidance' and 'counselling', and 'career guidance'. . of job opportunities, the development of career decision-making, and the application. counsellors in the choice of career using two schools in the Mfantseman .. American Personnel and Guidance Association Statement of Policy on the. programmes for the implementation of career guidance and counseling. is because the ability to make the right career choices depends on the quality of guidance .. relationships between variables in the study and shows the relationship.
Career-life planning can be seen as a journey having five main components, or milestones: At each milestone, people may need to stop and take stock, in some cases to re-establish a sense of direction, in other cases to address potential barriers, and in still other cases to obtain additional information, skills, or other resources needed to continue the journey.
For example, to be well prepared, we need to understand the context of the journey, i. In obtaining the necessary tools and resources to make the journey successful, people need to know what tools and resources are available for the type of journey being undertaken. Some journeys may require special skills or approaches and people need to have a process for determining which specific skills or approaches are best suited for that journey.
At any milestone, people may already possess the knowledge, skills, and support needed to continue successfully. However, others may need to stop over and gain additional knowledge, skills, or resources in order to continue. These components are all important for s to understand and for policy makers and practitioners to cultivate.
The road map metaphor is at the same time a model for working with people using guidance and counselling services and a model for helping policy makers and practitioners understand their own career development. It also pertains to the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed to implement new programs. Basic Career Development Principles In order to become more effective in addressing the career-life planning needs of youth and adults, it is important that policy makers and practitioners understand some basic principles.
Typically, people have a variety of talents and most jobs require a broad range of competencies. Thus, most people have a broad range of jobs in which they could experience success. Without job satisfaction, it is difficult to achieve life satisfaction. Many things that happen to people look like accidents. However, closer examination reveals that people position themselves in ways that help them capitalize on unplanned events. Career education plays an important role in the career paths of children, youth, young adults, and older adults.
At its heart, career education involves developing an attitude that encourages the belief that it is OK, or even preferred, to plan ones career. Developing this kind of attitude is best done in small doses, beginning when children are young, in order that the attitudes can be personalized.
Career education is life education. The skills needed to make meaningful career choices are the skills needed to make meaningful life choices. Thus, the process is referred to as career-life planning. Career-life planning for girls and women. Research suggests that the career development of girls and women does not parallel that of men and boys.
Women face additional and different career-related issues than do men. There is a need to pay attention to individual differences and not generalize from one sub-segment of society to another when working in the career-life planning area. Tailoring Services to Differing Needs People have differing needs and the same individual may have different needs at different points in time.
For some, information and advice is all that is needed. Practitioners provide information, and those who receive it process the information, and take action.
Other people need career guidance, tailored to their concerns or goals and designed to give them greater opportunity for personal development and satisfaction from work. Others require career counselling, that creates a climate where people can explore, examine, and clarify their own thoughts, feelings, and actions, to arrive at answers that are best for them.
Advising is most appropriate for people who are seeking information, know how to use it, and are open to the advice they receive.
Nigerian Journal of Guidance and Counselling
Guidance can assist people to consider their suitability for different career and educational opportunities, explore alternatives they may not have considered previously, and engage in appropriate decision-making about their future career-life path. Counselling is required when people need to explore their views and attitudes related to career and educational opportunities, their personal level of readiness to pursue various options, their cultural and societal contexts, and the need to include others who may be important in the decision making process for that person.
In many countries, advising is readily available. Guidance services often are available in basic education, but are frequently not available for those outside the school system. Counselling services are more rare, especially outside the school system, even in so-called more developed countries.
Evaluating the processes and outcomes of vocational counselling: An action theory perspective
What is required to replace these fragmented services is an integrated and holistic approach that begins with a needs assessment to determine whether advising, guidance, or counselling services would be most appropriate. This approach would also represent a more cost effective way of delivering career-life planning assistance to individuals across the lifespan. Career Development — Public Policy Dimension In the last decade, an increasing number of organizations and countries have recognized the need for career guidance and counselling services.
One conclusion reached in all countries was that career guidance is a private as well as a public good, explicitly linked to: The studies concluded that career guidance needs to be available to individuals at any age and at any point in life, in order to assist them in making educational, training, and occupational choices, and to better manage their careers.
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It seems equally strange that we recognize certain theories as valid, on the one hand, but maintain that interventions based on them are not evidence based until the interventions are proven effective, on the other.
This is just one example of what Hammersley described as the difficult relationship between theory and evidence. Efficacy and effectiveness studies have an appeal to common sense, that is, that the desired outcome is a direct effect of the intervention.
However, these studies rarely address the one-to-one reasoning that is implied by them. Evaluating vocational counselling is not analogous to evaluating the repair of an automobile. Counselling is different and substantially more than what is captured in a simple instrumental cause and effect relationship. Thus, an integrated approach to the evaluation of vocational counselling has to reflect everyday thinking and, at the same time, account for theory and empirical research.
Additionally, we expect that everyday thinking will be represented in descriptions of actions, projects, and career, but not in their explanations. Evaluation of both processes and outcomes 14Another debate in the field of counselling generally is whether evaluations should focus simply on outcomes, or whether it should include processes as well. For example, Holland suggested that society is interested in outcomes not processes in vocational counselling.
Clearly, the focus on the evaluation of outcomes is supported by efforts to establish evidence-based practice as the gold standard for practitioners.
As well, the evaluation of outcomes is often linked to quantitative evaluation, where assessing the dimension of meaning is difficult. Hammersley showed that some of the traditional problems of the relationship between theory and evidence could be addressed successfully in qualitative research.
However, this position is implicitly supported by the assumption that all ethical and responsible counsellors evaluate as they go along, using a range of criteria including those informed by common sense. The importance attributed to common sense is enhanced further by the fear that quantitative evaluation will not address criteria of meaning and worth.
In order to soften the hard boundaries between these two attitudes, that is, evaluation based on common sense and traditional quantitative evaluation, we look back at the roots of the division between research and evaluation and then propose a new integrative approach. Research and evaluation as separate domains 15Research and evaluation have often been thought of as separate domains, in which the former generates knowledge for its own sake, and the latter, embedded in particular social, political, and economic contexts, uses the criterion of worth.
Although these domains developed separately, they are closer today where research methods are used in evaluation and evaluation is seen as an important part of research programs. Clearly, the criterion of worth that evaluation brings with it is important to vocational counselling.
Furthermore, this criterion opens the door to our consideration of qualia, which Jackson described as those features of our experience that, to a degree, are ineffable. For example, if a person has never experienced first hand being understood deeply in counselling, he or she may find it difficult to describe what it is like, even though able to enunciate the characteristics of empathy.
No amount of information suffices for the experiential knowledge of a phenomenon. Qualia has been conceptualized as being different from natural phenomena, that is, it refers to a quality. Taken to the next step, qualia can be seen as not only the sensed and perceived quality from the subjective point of view, but also captured in the social meaning that is part of shared social knowledge, and the understanding of vocational counselling from the systematic perspective of professionals.
Evaluation suggests judging in light of the criterion of quality. The challenge of proposing an integrated view is to bring the natural phenomena of vocational counselling together with aspects of consciousness suggested by qualia and represented in the intentionality of actors, individually, jointly, and as professionals. The processes and outcomes of vocational guidance are pointed to by those involved in them and those who observe them. Intentionality also serves to integrate noema, and noesis, that is, an experienced phenomenon such as the vocational counselling interview and its mode of being experienced such as the interview being experienced as relating, empathizing, or interpreting Sharoff, Integrating a professional-scientific view with qualia and intentionality, presented here very briefly, took a long time to develop in the philosophy of science and is still only seldom encountered in educational and vocational guidance research and evaluation.
They may not appear central for developing counselling interventions but they are central for the integration of the various conceptualizations in counselling theory and research, intervention, and ultimately, their evaluation. When evaluation is added to this mix, as of course it must be, the challenge is keener.
Our view is that the intentional stance including qualia, intentionality, noema and noesis can serve as a point of departure for addressing this challenge. It led us to develop an integrative model. This framework for how people understand and make sense of human behaviour looks to the goals of action and other action processes rather than the causes of behaviour for understanding. The assumed or understood goal helps observers define a unit of action with a beginning and an end.
Such a unit can also be the focus of professional observers and scientists. This also is the case when vocational and career issues are concerned. Furthermore, in a social or a shared view, intentionality is captured by descriptive and evaluative concepts which are interwoven in meaningful narratives. In this way, evaluation is an inherent part of the conceptualization of goal-directed processes at various levels. Thus, evaluation can benefit from an approach that incorporates such a conceptualization.
In doing so, we offer the possibility of merging evaluation with these ongoing processes, making evaluation an integrated part of them. These discussions are not new in scientific discourse or in the vocational counselling literature. Rather, heretofore they have been framed differently. Action, project, and career 19The everyday understanding of human behaviour is not limited to discrete actions.
It extends to longer periods of time, using the constructs of project and career. Action itself refers to the short-term intentional goal-directed behaviour of persons. Cooking a meal might consist of one or more goal-directed actions. A counselling session with a client might consist of one or more joint goal-directed actions. When several discrete actions that occur over a mid-length period of time are constructed as having common goals, we consider them a project.
Adhering to a special diet for a period of time might be considered a project.
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A counselling project might become an important part of the vocational career of the client and the work with a particular client might become an important episode in the career of the counsellor. Thus, the constructs of action, project, and career, while not always used explicitly in this way, are represented in the conventional everyday descriptions of ongoing behaviour and in the subjective reports of the persons engaged in them.
We can also observe these processes in a systematic manner. These joint and social processes refer to the joint actions of those involved in them and the embedding of these actions in socially constructed projects and careers. Joint actions encompass the individual intentions a person may bring to the action as well as the intentions that are generated with the action. Shotter suggested that joint action captures an intentionality that is not fully accounted for by the individual intentions of the participants.
It is important to keep in mind that when talking about actions, projects, and career, we always imply three perspectives to understand them—the social perspectives of lay persons, the subjective view of the participants, and the systematic view of professionals.
Joint processes are critical in the evaluation of vocational counselling, as Schultheiss recognized that relationship, while being important in life, is also of preponderant importance in vocational counselling.
The evaluation of goal setting and goal maintaining processes have to be derived from a careful analysis of what is implicitly and experientially going on in joint actions and projects.
The goals an individual may conjure up that are disconnected from action will gain meaning only to the extent that they extend and are constructed through joint action, project, and career. Conversely, goals that are embedded in joint actions have the potential of constructing project and career.
These considerations about the concept of goal are important. In addition, this long-term construction, which itself is an active joint and social process, is dependent on having mid-term length projects which come together to form career. In turn, projects are only possible when we can see that relevant actions are associated through common and hierarchically-linked goals. This framework suggests that long-term, life-sustaining goals can and are found in other areas of life.
Career is not simply an occupation or a series of occupations.
Rather, career is a construct that reflects our efforts to make sense, not only of specific aspects of our lives, but also of actions and joint projects over the long-term. Project 23The understanding of action and career and their relationship in contextual action theory makes possible a third construct in this temporal sequence, that of project.