Despite its powerful impact on Italian politics, the importance of Futurism has scarcely been .. Futurism's entrepreneurial spirit, as well as its expanding relationship with heavy industry, can L'avanguardia futurista negli anni del Fascismo. relationship between Futurism and fascism. Härmänmaa's readings of by Marinetti in Futurismo e fascismo () propagated the official image of. Mussolini. Paper titled "Il futurismo italiano come un movimento fascista" in the National graduate Organizer of the session entitled "Man and Machine: The Relationship.
These exhibitions were open to different artistic trends, such as futurism and Novecento. The fascist acceptance of these two different artistic movements, inspired by revolution and tradition respectively, should not be seen as an incoherent or purely tactical policy: It reached architecture as well, and other forms of art. In his letter, the Russian painter asks the leader of futurism to support the cause of the Bauhaus: Kandinsky repudiates these accusations: The Russian artist worked to have him fired, as the memoirs of his wife Nina Kandinsky — confirm.
Hesse followed this advice, but failed to make Meyer renounce his ideas. Hesse then asked the director to resign, but he refused.
Marinetti and Futurism - University of Helsinki Research Portal - University of Helsinki
Nevertheless, Hesse was eventually able to fire him because of his Swiss nationality. As a matter of fact, Kandinsky was instrumental in describing the Bauhaus in detail: This had no effect and the Bauhaus was closed in October by the Nazi-led government of Saxony-Anhalt.
This source confirms the positive cultural image of fascism in Germany. Margherita Sarfatti stated in that Germany was the country that showed the greatest interest in Italy in the twenties: There is no newspaper or journal, which does not provide its readers continuously with accurate and often exhaustive information about Italy and fascism.
These included being forbidden to sell or to exhibit their art, being dismissed from teaching positions and in some cases being forbidden to produce art. The situation in Italy was different, which explains the confidence with which Kandinsky wrote to Marinetti: This is confirmed again by a further letter from the Russian artist, which also eliminates any doubt about the character of the letter here engaged with, which cannot be reduced to its instrumental purpose.
The day before the Nazi police operation against the Bauhaus, Kandinsky wrote to Werner Drewes —one of his former students: In Italy it looks very different! The new architecture and the new art ital. Maybe the Nazis will realize that the Italians act correctly… Henceforth we will see how it goes on and what will become of our art!
Anyhow artists should be apolitical, thinking of their work and devoting themselves to it with energy.
Nevertheless art and science should be given complete freedom: Luigi Pirandello — was the president of the convention, and Filippo Tommaso Marinetti its secretary. The latter even built a decidedly fascist masterpiece, the Casa del Fascio in Como, also called the Palazzo Terragni.
Tarquini, Alessandra, Storia della cultura fascista, Bologna De Felice, Renzo ed. Nationalism, Futurism and Fascism, Westport ; id. Futuristi in politica, Rome Dottrina e istituzioni tra futurismo e Novecento, Florence ; but also Benzi, Arte in Italia tra le due guerre.
Arte e vita in Italia tra le due guerre, Milanpp.
Kandinsky a Parigi —, Milanopp. Weimar-Dessau-Berlin, New Yorkp. Russian and Bauhaus Years, —, in: Russian and Bauhaus Years, —, New Yorkpp.
Zur Konzeption des Bauhauses, in: Mappe mit 10 Lithografien und einer Radierung. Gedruckt und herausgegeben vom Staatlichen Bauhaus Weimar, Encounters and Transformations, in: Fascismo e mass media, Rome-Baripp. Faschistin, Zurichp. Introductory Remarks on Fascist Temporalities, in: Journal of Modern European History 13pp.
Arte e cultura in Italia, Milanpp. Fiedler, Jeannine; Feierabend, Peter eds. Gerarchia 9,pp. Il fascismo e la Germania, in: Gerarchia 12pp.
Its sense of speed and feel for materials are the quintessence and masterpiece of the new art by Boccioni, who died in, ironically after he was thrown from a horse. By Marinetti had linked with a former literary rival Gabriele D'Annunzio to lead the interventionists; together they had helped push Italy into war with the central powers the year before.
For Marinetti the war was "the most beautiful futurist poem that has seen the light of day". A brilliant account of how the futurists, the D'Annunzio nationalists and irredentists drove Italy to war — and some would do so again in the 30s — is given in Mark Thompson's brilliant book The White War published last year, and now in for the Duff Cooper prize.
Thompson describes how D'Annunzio and Marinetti toured the Carso front to harangue the troops with pornographic rhetoric about blood and sacrifice and futurist poems such as The Pope's Aeroplane and the The Song of the Pederasts. The effect on the audience is not recorded, says Thompson laconically. Many of the soldiers were farm boys, ill clothed and shod — well over half a million were killed in three years on the Piave and Isonzo.
The bitterness and sense of betrayal of the demobbed veterans led to the formation of fasci di combattimento, in turn the foundations of Mussolini's fascists.
Not to be outdone, Marinetti formed fasci futuristi and a futurist party.
The link then forged between Marinetti, fascism and Mussolini is hard to avoid. In Marinetti issued his pamphlet Futurismo e Fascismo.
He joined the fascists' party, volunteered for service in Ethiopia in and in Russia from Disentangling the cultural, artistic and political strands of futurist legacy is tricky.
Back to futurism?
In the current Estorick show, for instance, Fascism gets barely a mention at all on the display boards. Yet Mark Thompson sees Boccioni's bronze Unique Form of Continuity and Spacecentrepiece at the Estorick, foreshadowing the fascist idea of "New man, the soldier-citizen, mere instrument of the state". In Venice at the Correr the organisers of the Depero show confront the problem squarely.
Depero knew support for fascism blighted his later career, and he went back to America after the war. Despite spitting on the notion of history, futurism owed a lot to its immediate past — to the cubists and above all to Nietzsche, his superman, willpower and gospel of nihilism. It is now threatening to come back into our own future. Ideas of betrayal and irredentism the national or collective birthright that must be redeemed by blood and sacrifice are once more current.
Beliefs in violent acts of supreme destruction overrule reflection and dialogue.