THE EPIC OF GILGAMESH - PDF
Why should you care about Allegory of the Harlot in Sinleqqiunninni's The Epic in this poem: the interaction between Enkidu and the Harlot seems to mirror the links him to the ways of man, but also—since she is a temple-prostitute—to the. Hebrews, by faith Rahab escaped the fate of unbelievers by saving the Hebrew She initiates the nomadic man into civilization and makes of Enkidu a man and the Canaanite city dwellers through the intermediary role of a local prostitute. We next find the cluster in the account of the prostitute, Rahab, who binds a connection between the two texts was not lost on later Jewish Cf. the narrator's words concerning Enkidu after he had sex with the ḫarīmtu.
One common assumption about ancient epics, such as the Iliad or the Odyssey, is that their written form was based on oral tradition. This does not seem to be true of The Epic of Gilgamesh. There is no evidence that The Epic of Gilgamesh began as an oral narrative performed by bards or reciters and coalesced into a written text only later. In fact, the poem as we now have it shows many signs of having been a formal, written, literary work composed and perhaps performed for welleducated people, especially scholars and members of a royal court.
Rather than being popular or folkloric literature, the story of Gilgamesh may have been mostly of interest to a small circle of people who belonged to the social and economic elite of their day. A short excerpt of Tablet 11, found on a student's exercise tablet from Babylon and dating from the late first millennium B. Translating The Epic of Gilgamesh Western literary tradition since classical antiquity has transmitted ancient works, such as the epics of Homer or the plays of Sophocles, as single unified texts with only minor "variants.
For the most part, however, there are no substantive deviations among manuscripts of the same classical work, even those from centuries apart. Furthermore, ancient classical literature that survives only in fragments or quotations, such as the poetry of Sappho, has little chance of ever being pieced together into its original form, because it was written on perishable materials.
The situation for ancient Mesopotamian texts is quite different. For The Epic of Gilgamesh, there are numerous ancient manuscripts on durable clay tablets, some more than a thousand years older than others, from many places. When these deal with the same episodes, they show fascinating and significant variations in wording and content. This allows us to see what was added, subtracted, changed, and reinterpreted over the centuries, but it complicates presentation of the text to a modern reader.
Since no single version of The Epic of Gilgamesh has survived intact from antiquity, any translator has to make difficult decisions about how to treat the material. The method followed here has been to take as the basic text the "standard version. Where lines, sections, or episodes are missing or omitted from this version, I have supplied them where possible from other versions, both earlier and later.
THE EPIC OF GILGAMESH
There is no consistent line numbering for any original text of The Epic of Gilgamesh. The line numbers used here refer to lines of the translation only.
Even when all versions are consulted, there are still major gaps in the narrative, as well as in individual lines or passages.
Editors and translators have guessed about what the missing elements might have been; new discoveries often prove these guesses wrong. Where such inferences are not possible, square brackets enclose ellipses. Words or phraxs in parentheses indicate explanatory additions by the translator. Ellipses without brackets indicate signs or words of unknown meaning. It is important to remember that the ancient languages in which The Epic of Gilgamesh was written or translated, including Akkadian, Sumerian, and Hittite, are not so well understood as cther ancient languages, such as Greek and Latin.
This means that translators frequently disagree among themselves as to what a given word or phrase could mean. While this translation is based on study of the ancient manuscripts, consultation of the extensive scholarly literature about the epic, and comparison with the best modern translations, it remains a more individual product than a translation of a work by Homer or Virgil is likely to be.
New discoveries constantly enlarge our understanding of the epic, whose genius and power can still move the modern reader four thousand years after it was written.
The poem also contains first-person discourse by individual characters describing their past XI, or present IX, actions. In general, there is more direct speech by the characters than narration of their actions.
Multiple Choice Quiz
The narrative is sometimes rapid, sometimes slow. Suspense is built up by repetition 1, or lengthy speeches at climactic moments V. Description of particularly dramatic moments or speeches of great emotion may be given in full twice, as if pausing for effect 11.
Action is presented in short episodes, often with direct speech, such as instructions, assertions, or statements of will, setting the stage for action to follow X. The second half of the poem makes extensive use of retrospective speech concerning events already narrated or that took place before the time of the poem, climaxing in the long speech of Utanapishtim narrating the story of the flood XI, While these speeches are progressively more important for Gilgamesh's broadening understanding, their effect is to slow the action in the second half of the poem, though the denouement is surprisingly rapid.
Lines often divide into two, three, or more parts with roughly the same number of words in each part, usually two to four, though there are many variations on this pattern. There is no strict meter in Mesopotamian poetry, but the symmetry of poetic lines can give the poetry a kind of rhythm or beat that may be varied for artistic 2. References are to tablet and line of the translation reasons.
For example, rapid rhythms may be used for a fight scene 11,slow rhythms for an anxious mother's prayer Lines of poetry often come in pairs, which can be related to each other in sound, rhythm, and meaning.
Meaning is developed in part of a line, a whole line, in pairs of lines, or in groups of lines by use of parallelism; that is, repeated formulation of the same message such that subsequent statements may restate, expand, complete, contrast, render more specific, or carry further the first message.
The following two-line example illustrates this: He anointed himself with oil, turned into a man, He put on clothing, became like a warrior. The second half of each line proclaims his progress from becoming a human being to becoming a leader among men.
The following example is in five lines: The whole of Uruk was standing beside him, The people formed a crowd around him, A throng was jostling towards him, Young men were mobbed around him, Infantile, they groveled before him.
Activity increases as the scene focuses on the hero at the center: This quickening of action is paralleled by ever greater specification of the people involved: One senses, too, increasing derogation by the narrator, for he seems to be contemptuous of the shoving crowd of gawking, fawning men and youngsters. For instance, in the beginning, Gilgamesh stays up all night roistering and abusing his subjects; at the end, he cannot stay awake more than a few minutes.
Enkidu begins as a wild man roaming the steppe and saving wild beasts from the hunter; Gilgamesh becomes a wild man who kills wild beasts. Some are simple comparisons: Some similes are developed further or form part of a wider set of associations: This evokes an image, familiar to Babylonians from their document seals, of a personal intercessor deity leading the seal owner into the presence of a more important deity.
Yet once Enkidu has become civilized, he walks in front of the harlot to Uruk 11, 74and later in the poem, the elders of Uruk, Gilgamesh, and Enkidu have much to say about who is to walk first as they set forth on their quest,etc. So here an apparently simple simile opens a series of related images that recur throughout the poem. Some similes seem enhanced with irony: The Mesopotamians considered the watery depths below the earth to have a surface over them to hold them in.
This the poet compares to the roof of the ark, which is supposed to keep the waters out. Metaphors, or implied comparisons, include such examples as "Whatever they attempt is a puff of air" 11, and "his breath of life is death" 11, They may also be refurbished and expanded, as with some of the similes. In Tablet I, line 3 1, for example, Gilgamesh as king is compared to a charging wild bull, an image common enough when used in praise of Mesopotamian royalty, but the image gains richness a few lines later by reference to his mother, Ninsun, as a wild cow I, Gilgamesh is a wild bull by birth, so to speak, as well as by behavior.
Later in the poem, Enkidu dreams that he is trampled down by a monster "like a wild bull" VII,perhaps symbolic of Gilgamesh's role in his friend's impending doom. Likewise, the metaphor of Gilgamesh as shepherd of Uruk, contrasted to Enkidu as an actual shepherd, is an example of the refurbishment of what was nearly a "dead metaphor" elsewhere: In modern Western literature, this technique is usually used as a game or joke, but in Mesopotamian literature wordplays were used in serious and solemn literary contexts as well as for humor.
Enkidu's curse and blessing of the prostitute VII,contain numerous wordplays, some with sexual overtones: Likewise in Humbaba's curse of Gilgamesh and Enkidu V,there seem to be elaborate wordplays that mean at the same time "May they not cross water safely to the opposite bank" and "May they not find a friend to rely on," where "cross" sounds like "friend" and "bank" has an ominous echo of the word for "grave," although this example remains obscure.
In the gardener's rejection of Ishtar's advances VI,his choice of the word "reed" elpet echoes harshly Ishtar's use of "touch" luput VI, 69 ; and in line 77, "garden patch" suggests "suffering. Others have of necessity been left aside. Sometimes the unit counted is not expressed but left to the reader's imagination, as in Tablet XI, line 66, "thrice thirty-six hundred measures of pitch I poured in the oven.
In some instances, the figures do not seem to add up 11, or simply defy calculation X. Some of these figures may have been mathematical jokes intended for people with a Mesopotamian mathematical education, while others may simply be exaggerations in folkloric or epic style. Among the most celebrated riddles in the poem is Gilgamesh's genealogy: The fraction two-thirds appears again 10 in the name of the boatman, Ur-Shanabi, "Servant of Two-Thirds," and in connection with launching or loading the ark XI, Utanapishtim, for example, expresses himself in the elevated, obscure style suitable for an antediluvian sage but has a curious mannerism of rolling or doubling consonants sham for sham, shaqqa for shaqa, ushaznunnu for ushaznanu, niqqu for niqu.
This may have suggested to an ancient audience some social or personal distinction now no longer apparent. Shamhat, the harlot, is eloquent and persuasive I,whereas Ishtar, the goddess, apparently speaks like a person of little education, perhaps a streetwalker VI, The elders of Uruk are pompous and long-winded, causing Gilgamesh to laugh 11, ; Humbaba is mincing and bombastic, and Ishullanu, the gardener, uses a nonstandard form in Tablet VI, line 72 this could be translated either as archaic and proverbial: Although deliberate distortion of normal poetic language to reflect distinctive speech may occur elsewhere in Mesopotamian literature, no other work develops the device to the same extent as this poem.
The most elaborate of these is the name of the old man who is supposed to test the plant of rejuvenation: This type of formation is very rare outside of this poem, so may be considered a special feature of its style, though the tone or intent is no longer perceivable. The portrayal of human mortality as a consequence of divine selfishness, for example, was well known to them.
They also recognized a hero as a man striving towards greater accomplishments than those of ordinary people, in spite of the limitations imposed by chance and destiny. The Mesopotamians pre- ferred literary works set in ancient times, involving kings and gods, narrating events largely outside of everyday experience. Yet the divine and human heroes often display imperfections and personal limitations, as if remoteness of time and empirical background were no obstacles to projecting inglorious human weakness onto long-ago heroes.
The theme of the partiality of divine justice was familiar to Babylonian readers as well: In the epic, the Mesopotamian audience would have recognized passages that occur in other literary works. For example, in Tablet VII, linesEnkidu uses lines found also in the poem called "Ishtar's Descent to the Netherworldf13 in describing his own descent to hell. In the epic, Ishtar makes these threats after going up to heaven, whereas in "Ishtar's Descent to the Netherworld," she makes the same threats at the gates of hell.
They would also have noticed that in threatening to break down the tavern keeper's door X, 22 Gilgamesh uses the same words that Ishtar uses in the other poem when threatening to break down the doors of hell, and perhaps they thought that a humorous touch. Nor is this the only instance of wording from another poem used in the Gilgamesh epic to mean something quite different. In Tablet VII, lines 83 and 85, Enkidu curses the female prostitute using the same terms with which the queen of the netherworld curses the male impersonator of women in "Ishtar's Descent to the Netherworld.
Mesopotamians expected their literature to stress the importance of knowledge. The significance of Gilgamesh's story lay not so much in the deeds themselves as in the lesson his experience offered to future generations. The Mesopotamians believed that highest knowledge came to sages of the remote past directly from the gods or through extraordinary events not likely to recur. For their own times, they thought that highest knowledge came from study of written works of the past.
Multiple Choice Quiz
The modern reader may well find other themes of the poem of special interest. Women, for example, are more active in this narrative than in many Mesopotamian literary works. In fact, Gilgamesh's success in his quest is largely owed to the intervention of women: Siduri, the tavern keeper, tells him how to get over the sea.
The wife of Utanapishtim persuades her dour husband to give Gilgamesh a gift, which turns out to be the plant of rejuvenation.
Old Testament Exam 1 (Nelson) Study Guide | Kenneth Senstad - mephistolessiveur.info
While Mesopotamians were familiar with a literary convention according to which women were more susceptible and approachable than men, The Epic of Gilgamesh's development of this convention into a major theme has no clear ancient parallel. To the modern reader, satirical and humorous elements of the poem may seem surprising, as a canon of Western culture is that epic is supposed to be serious and exalted.
Such passages include Enkidu's replacement of his irreversible curse with a magnanimous blessing, his denunciation of an insensate door, the sun god's hollow promise to him of a fine funeral, the pedantic speech of the scorpion monster's wife, and Gilgamesh's brutal denunciation of Ishtar. There are fleeting but memorable images, such as the worm dropping out of Enkidu's nose, or the boatbuilders' purloining materials from the ark project, to which ancient parallels will not be readily found.
Taken with the quantitative exaggerations of the story, such as Gilgamesh's extraordinary journey, his race with the sun, the topographical consequences of his struggle with Humbaba, and the monstrous cubic ark, such passages may betoken a complex intent that blended humor and a sophisticated pleasure in the ridiculous with a serious message about love and death.
No one can say for sure. Sumerian Poetry in Translation New Haven: Yale UP, Muses: Foster, Before the Muses, 2nd ed. The narrator invites us to read Gilgamesh's account of his hardships and to admire the city walls and treasury for the goddess Ishtar, his architectural legacy in Uruk. Sce its upper wall, whose facing gleams like copper, hze at the lower course, which nothing will equal, Mount the stone stairway, there from days of old, Approach Eanna, the dwelling of Ishtar, Which no future king, no human being will equal.
GO up, pace out the walls of Uruk, Study the foundation terrace and examine the brickwork. Is not its masonry of kiln-fired brick? And did not seven masters lay its foundations? One square mile of city, one square mile of gardens, One square mile of clay pits, a half square mile of Ishtar's dwelling, 'I'hree and a half square miles is the measure of Uruk! An old version of the epic began here.
I le was perfection in height, ltlcally handsome [ Go up, pace out the walls of Umk. Seal impression from the end of the fourth millennium B. Surpassing all kings, for his stature renowned, 30 Heroic offspring of Uruk, a charging wild bull, He leads the way in the vanguard, He marches at the rear, defender of his comrades. Mighty floodwall, protector of his troops, Furious flood-wave smashing walls of stone, 35 Wild calf of Lugalbanda, Gilgamesh is perfect in strength, Suckling of the sublime wild cow, the woman Ninsun, Towering Gilgamesh is uncannily perfect.
Opening passes in the mountains, Digging wells at the highlands' verge, 40 Traversing the ocean, the vast sea, to the sun's rising, Exploring the furthest reaches of the earth, Seeking everywhere for eternal life, Reaching in his might Utanapishtim the Distant One, Restorer of holy places that the deluge had destroyed, 45 Founder of rites for the teeming peoples, Who could be his like for kingly virtue?
Mesopotamian rulers sometimes boasted of restoring ancient temples that had been destroyed and forgotten long ago. In line 45, the poet suggests that Gilgamesh became a dutiful king of this kind. Mesopotamian rulers also sometimes boasted of endowing temples with new offerings. This pair of lines sums up religious duties expected of a good king by citing two extremes of benefactions: ICilgamesh, in his arrogance and superior strength, abuses his subjects, appurently through some strenuous athletic competition at which he excelled.
At the complaint of the citizenry, the gods create a wild man, Enkidu, as a fitting rival for Gilgamesh. Gilgamesh would leave no son to his father, Dav and night he would rampage. Gilgamesh would leave no girl to her [mother]! You created this headstrong wild bull in ramparted Uruk, The onslaught of his weapons has no equal. According to one Mesopotamian tradition, the first human being was created by Mami, goddess of birth, whom the gods thereupon rewarded with the title "Mistress of All the Gods," and Enki, god of wisdom, working together.
Subsequent human beings were born naturally. This passage means that Gilgamesh was physically a perfect human being, so much so that he resembled the first human created by the gods more than the product of a normal birth. Certain goddesses were believed to pay particular attention to prayers of women. In this case, they are moved by the constant complaints of the women of Uruk that Gilgamesh was mistreating the women and men of the city.
Gilgamesh leaves no son to his father! Day and night he rampages fiercely. This is the shepherd of ramparted Uruk, This is the people's shepherd, Bold, superb, accomplished, and mature! Gilgamesh leaves no girl to her [mother]! They summoned the birth goddess, Aruru: You, Aruru, created [the boundless human race], Now, create what Anu commanded, To his stormy heart, let that one be equal, Let them contend with each other, that Uruk may have peace.
When Aruru heard this, She conceived within her what Anu commanded. Aruru wet her hands, She pinched off clay, she tossed it upon the steppe, She created valiant Enkidu in the steppe, Offspring of potter's clay? Shaggy with hair was his whole body, He was made lush with head hair, like a woman, The locks of his hair grew thick as a grainfield. He knew neither people nor inhabited land, He dressed as animals do.
He fed on grass with gazelles, With beasts he jostled at the water hole, With wildlife he drank his fill of water.
This important restoration is particularly uncertain. The father counsels him to go to Gilgamesh, who will give him a woman to seduce Enkidu from his untamed way of life. One day, a second, and a third he encountered him at the edge of the water hole. When he saw him, the hunter stood stock-still with terror, As for Enkidu, he went home with his beasts. Aghast, struck dumb, Ilis heart in a turmoil, his face drawn, With woe in his vitals, I Iis face like a traveler's from afar, 'I'he hunter made ready to speak, saying to his father: My father, there is a certain fellow who has come [from the uplands], He is the mightiest in the land, strength is his, Like the force of heaven, so mighty is his strength.
He constantly ranges over the uplands, Constantly feeding on grass with beasts, Constantly making his way to the edge of the water hole. I am too frightened to approach him. He has filled in the pits I dug, He has torn out my traps I set, He has helped the beasts, wildlife of the steppe, slip from my hands, He will not let me work the steppe.
His father made ready to speak, saying to the hunter: My son, in Uruk [dwells] Gilgamesh, [There is no one more mighty] than he. Like the force of heaven, so mighty is his strength. Take the road, set off [towards Uruk], [Tell Gilgamesh of] the mightiness-man. When the wild beasts draw near the water hole, Let her strip off her clothing, laying bare her charms. When he sees her, he will approach her. His beasts that grew up with him on the steppe will deny him.
There is a certain fellow [who has come from the uplands], He is mightiest in the land, strength is his. He constantly ranges over the uplands, Constantly feeding on grass with his beasts, Constantly making his way to the edge of the water hole. He has filled in the pits I dug, He has torn out my traps I set, He has helped the beasts, wildlife of the steppe, slip from my hands, He will not allow me to work the steppe. Gilgamesh said to him, to the hunter: Go, hunter, take with you Shamhat the harlot, When the wild beasts draw near the water hole, Let her strip off her clothing, laying bare her charms.
When he sees her, he will approach her, His beasts that grew up with him on the steppe will deny him. Forth went the hunter, taking with him Shamhat the harlot, They took the road, going straight on their way. On the third day they arrived at the appointed place. Hunter and harlot sat down to wait. One day, a second day, they sat by the edge of the water hole, The beasts came to the water hole to drink, The wildlife came to drink their fill of water.
But as for him, Enkidu, born in the uplands, Who feeds on grass with gazelles, Who drinks at the water hole with beasts, Who, with wildlife, drinks his fill of water, Shamhat looked upon him, a human-man, A barbarous fellow from the midst of the steppe: There he is, Shamhat, open your embrace, Open your embrace, let him take your charms!
When he sees you, he will approach you, Toss aside your clothing, let him lie upon you, ]so Treat him, a human, to woman's work! Shamhat loosened her garments, She exposed her loins, he took her charms. She was not bashful, she took his vitality. She tossed aside her clothing and he lay upon her, She treated him, a human, to woman's work, As in his ardor he caressed her.
Six days, seven nights was Enkidu aroused, flowing into Shamhat. After he had his fill of her delights, I Ic set off towards his beasts. When they saw him, Enkidu, the gazelles shied off, 'I'he wild beasts of the steppe shunned his person.
Ihkidu had spent himself, his body was limp, I lis knees stood still, while his beasts went away. Ihkidu was too slow, he could not run as before, But he had gained [reason] and expanded his understanding.
You are handsome, Enkidu, you are become like a god, Why roam the steppe with wild beasts? Come, let me lead you to ramparted Uruk, To the holy temple, abode of Anu and Ishtar, The place of Gilgamesh, who is perfect in strength, And so, like a wild bull, he lords it over the young men As she was speaking to him, her words found favor, He was yearning for one to know his heart, a friend.
Come, Shamhat, escort me To the lustrous hallowed temple, abode of Anu and Ishtar, The place of Gilgamesh, who is perfect in strength, And so, like a wild bull, he lords it over the young men. I myself will challenge him, [I will speak out] boldly, [I will] raise a cry in Uruk: I am the mighty one! He who was born in the steppe [is mighty], strength is his! And the harlots too, they are fairest of form, Rich in beauty, full of delights, Even the great gods are kept from sleeping at night!
Look at him, gaze upon his face, He is radiant with virility, manly vigor is his, The whole of his body is seductively gorgeous. Mightier strength has he than you, Never resting by day or night. Gilgamesh is beloved of Shamash, Anu, Enlil, and Ea broadened his wisdom. Ere you come down from the uplands, Gilgamesh will dream of you in Uruk.
She explains them to him. There were stars of heaven around me, Like the force of heaven, something kept falling upon me! I tried to carry it but it was too strong for me, I tried to move it but I could not budge it.
The Mesopotamians considered a small group of the gods "great" or "superior," above all the others. I carried it off and laid it down before you, Then you were making it my partner.
The mother of Gilgamesh, knowing and wise, Who understands everything, said to her son, Ninsun [the wild cow], knowing and wise, Who understands everything, said to Gilgamesh: The stars of heaven around you, Like the force of heaven, what kept falling upon you, Your trying to move it but not being able to budge it, Your laying it down before me, Then my making it your partner, Your falling in love with it, your caressing it like a woman, Means there will come to you a strong one, A companion who rescues a friend.
You will fall in love with him and caress him like a woman. He will be mighty and rescue you, time and again. He had a second dream, He arose and went before the goddess, his mother, Gilgamesh said to her, to his mother: Mother, I had a second dream.
An axe was thrown down in a street of ramparted Uruk, They were crowding around it, The whole of Uruk was standing by it, The people formed a crowd around it, A throng was jostling towards it. I carried it off and laid it down before you, I fell in love with it, like a woman I caressed it, Then you were making it my partner. My son, the axe you saw is a man. Your loving it like a woman and caressing it, And my making it your partner Means there will come to you a strong one, 18 A companion who rescues a friend, He will be mighty in the land, strength will be his, Like the strength of heaven, so mighty will be his strength.
Gilgamesh said to her, to his mother: Let this befall according to the command of the great counselor Enlil, I want a friend for my own counselor, For my own counselor do I want a friend! Even while he was having his dreams, Shamhat was telling the dreams of Gilgamesh to Enkidu, Each was drawn by love to the other.
Tablet 11 Shamhat begins the process of civilizing Enkidu. She takes him to an encampment ofshepherds, where he learns how to eat, drink, dress, and groom himself to human standards. Most of this tablet is known fiom older versions, combined here with later ones. Come, let me lead you to ramparted Uruk, To the holy temple, abode of Anu, Let me lead you to ramparted Uruk, To hallowed Eanna, abode of Ishtar, The place of Gilgamesh, who is perfect in strength, And so, like a wild bull, he lords it over the people.
You [are just like him], You will love him like your own self. Come away from this desolation, bereft even of shepherds. I Ie heard what she said, accepted her words, IIe was yearning for one to know his heart, a friend. She took off her clothing, with one piece she dressed him, 'I'he second she herself put on. Clasping his hand, like a guardian deity she led him,' To the shepherds' huts, where a sheepfold was, 'I'he shepherds crowded around him, They murmured their opinions among themselves: In Mesopotamian art, an individual pardian deity, often female, is shown leading a person into the presence of a great god.
The poet has this imagery in mind. No doubt he was born in the steppe, Like the force of heaven, mighty is his strength. They set bread before him, They set beer before him.
He looked uncertainly, then stared, Enkidu did not know to eat bread, Nor had he ever learned to drink beer! The harlot made ready to speak, saying to Enkidu: Eat the bread, Enkidu, the staff of life, Drink the beer, the custom of the land.
Enkidu ate the bread until he was sated, He drank seven juglets of the beer. His mood became relaxed, he was singing joyously, He felt lighthearted and his features glowed.
He treated his hairy body with water, He anointed himself with oil, turned into a man, He put on clothing, became like a warrior. He took his weapon, hunted lions, The shepherds lay down to rest at night. He slew wolves, defeated lions, The herdsmen, the great gods, lay down to sleep. Enkidu was their watchman, a wakeful man, He was [ Many peoples thought their gods lived on mountains. In the flatlands of the desert there were no mountains, so their created temple mountains, it becomes a meeting point between gods and humans.
Eating blood is forbidden, Humans are to populate the earth vv1,7 Humans are to rule the earth v2Animals are given for food v3God will not wipe out the earth with flood again and the rainbow 11 Compare the Genesis flood story with the Mesopotamian one. Note parallels and contrasts. Nisir Raven, dove, dove, Dove, swallow, dove raven Sweet smell of Sweet smell of sacrifice sacrifice Rainbow reminder Necklace 12 Consider the quotes regarding the patriarchal narratives: They have come down through a long, complex process of oral and written transmission.
Why or why not? No, because there is much evidence that suggests the narratives were very well preserved and historically congruent. Albright o Spear-headed American archaeology in Israel o Had many followers: Melchizedek, Lot, Esau, Laban. Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and Matriarchs: God can take a long time to show us His plan overriding these threats. We have to live by faith.
Jewish, Roman Catholic, Protestant. We believe in the plenary, verbal inspiration of the original writings of the Scriptures, and that as thus given they were wholly without error of any kind.
The Bible, consisting of the Old and New Testaments, is God-breathed and true, without true in all that it teaches; it is the supreme authority and only infallible guide for Christian faith and conduct—teaching, rebuking, and training us in righteousness. And you shall govern the people of Yahweh and save them from the hand of their enemies and round about.
Rest of exam is multiple choice 59qs. Battle o Dignity of Humanity vs. Slavery In Genesis 1 clearly an equality both made at the same time, Genesis 2 man is made first and then the women later, humanity is not complete until woman is created, both are necessary for humanity o Linear Thought vs.
Contrary to Enkidu's conscience, he cooperates in killing the defeated Humbaba. Afterwards, he again assists his companion Gilgamesh in slaying the Bull of Heaven, which the gods have sent as reprisal. The goddess Ishtar demands that the pair should pay for its destruction. Shamash argues to the other gods to spare both of them, but could only save Gilgamesh.