Countries of the United Kingdom - Wikipedia
The United Kingdom (UK) comprises four countries: England, Scotland and Wales and Northern Ireland Within the United Kingdom, a unitary sovereign state, . The British Isles comprise two sovereign states, Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom, and three dependencies of the British Crown, Guernsey, Jersey and the Isle of Man. Ireland is a unitary state and a republic. Since , it shares certain common institutions with Northern Ireland, In , following referendums in Scotland, Wales, and both parts of Ireland. Official name: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland England, Wales, and Scotland—as well as the northern portion of the island Northern Ireland and the Irish republic, relations between Northern Ireland's.
Ireland–United Kingdom relations
During this period, particularly in England, the development of naval power and the interest in voyages of discovery led to the acquisition and settlement of overseas coloniesparticularly in North America.
History of the United Kingdom The Treaty of Union led to a single united kingdom encompassing all Great Britain On 1 Maythe united Kingdom of Great Britain came into being, the result of Acts of Union being passed by the parliaments of England and Scotland to ratify the Treaty of Union and so unite the two kingdoms.
The Jacobites were finally defeated at the Battle of Culloden inafter which the Scottish Highlanders were brutally suppressed. British imperial ambition turned towards Asia, particularly to India. British ships transported an estimated two million slaves from Africa to the West Indies. Parliament banned the trade inbanned slavery in the British Empire inand Britain took a leading role in the movement to abolish slavery worldwide through the blockade of Africa and pressing other nations to end their trade with a series of treaties.
United Kingdom - Wikipedia
The world's oldest international human rights organisation, Anti-Slavery Internationalwas formed in London in Gradually political power shifted away from the old Tory and Whig landowning classes towards the new industrialists. An alliance of merchants and industrialists with the Whigs would lead to a new party, the Liberalswith an ideology of free trade and laissez-faire.
In Parliament passed the Great Reform Actwhich began the transfer of political power from the aristocracy to the middle classes.
In the countryside, enclosure of the land was driving small farmers out. Towns and cities began to swell with a new urban working class.
Few ordinary workers had the vote, and they created their own organisations in the form of trade unions. Alongside the formal control it exerted over its own colonies, British dominance of much of world trade meant that it effectively controlled the economies of many regionssuch as Asia and Latin America. During the century, the population increased at a dramatic rate, accompanied by rapid urbanisation, causing significant social and economic stresses.
Canada, Australia, and New Zealand became self-governing dominions. The Labour Party emerged from an alliance of trade unions and small socialist groups inand suffragettes campaigned for women's right to vote before After the war, Britain received the League of Nations mandate over a number of former German and Ottoman colonies.
The British Empire reached its greatest extent, covering a fifth of the world's land surface and a quarter of its population. Anglo-Irish Treaty The rise of Irish nationalismand disputes within Ireland over the terms of Irish Home Ruleled eventually to the partition of the island in Northern Ireland remained part of the United Kingdom.
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Since the British Nationality Act came into effect, the Crown dependencies have been treated as part of the United Kingdom for British nationality law purposes. This section needs expansion with: May Main articles: Unionism in Ireland and Unionism in the United Kingdom An important political movement in several countries in the Isles is British unionisman ideology favouring the continued union of the United Kingdom.
It is most prevalent in ScotlandEnglandand Northern Ireland. British unionism has close ties to British nationalism. Another movement is Loyalismwhich manifests itself as loyalism to the British Crown. Nationalism can take the form of Welsh nationalismCornish nationalismEnglish nationalismIrish nationalismScottish nationalismUlster nationalism or independence movements in the Isle of Man or Channel Islands.
Details on identity formation in the British Isles can be found at BritishnessScottish identityIrish people. Pan-Celticism is also a movement which is present in several of the countries which have a Celtic heritage.
United Kingdom | History, Geography, Facts, & Points of Interest | mephistolessiveur.info
Important strands of scholarship include research on identity, especially Britishness and Irish identityand studies of the major political movements, such as separatism, unionism and nationalism. The concept of post-nationalism is also a contemporary trend in studies of history, culture and politics in the isles.
The recent trend of using an archipelago perspective in scholarship of history, politics and identity was initiated by historian J. Pocock in the s. He coined the term Atlantic archipelago as a replacement for British Isles, and he pressed his fellow historians to reconsider two issues linked to the future of British history.
Politics in the British Isles
First, he urged historians of the British Isles to move away from histories of the Three Kingdoms Scotland, Ireland, England as separate entities,  and he called for studies implementing a bringing-together or conflation of these national narratives into truly integrated enterprises.
Pocock proposed the term Atlantic archipelago to avoid the contested British isles. It has since become the commonplace preference of historians to treat British history in just this fashion e.The Animated History of Scotland
Hugh Kearney 's The British Isles: However, less attention has been paid to its implications for discussions and debates beyond the Irish Sea.