Strong bones are crucial to good health, and good nutrition is crucial to strong bones. Find out what you need to protect the health of your skeleton for years to. It is very important to build strong and dense bones. month study found no significant difference in bone loss between women whose diets. Although nutrition is only 1 of many factors that influence bone mass .. findings of an association between vitamin K status and bone health.
Adequate calcium intake is critical to achieving optimal peak bone mass and modifies the rate of bone loss associated with aging Over the past decade, convincing evidence has emerged with respect to effects of dietary calcium on bone health in all age groups 1.
The role of calcium in bone health has been extensively reviewed elsewhere 115 — Unfortunately, there are a significant proportion of some population groups failing to achieve the recommended calcium intakes in a number of Western countries Besides the amount of calcium in the diet, the absorption of dietary calcium in foods is also a critical factor in determining the availability of calcium for bone development and maintenance.
Calcium must be released in a soluble, and probably ionized, form before it can be absorbed. Once in a soluble form, calcium is absorbed by 2 routes, transcellular and paracellular transport, and these have been reviewed elsewhere The central feature is that calcium absorption occurs by 2 independent processes, namely transcellular and paracellular transport of calcium across the epithelium.
The paracellular route of calcium absorption involves a passive calcium transport through the tight junctions between mucosal cells see Fig. However, the large intestine may represent a site of increased importance for calcium absorption when acidic fermentation takes place This is important if one remembers that consumption of prebiotics will lead to acidic fermentation in the large intestine. When dietary calcium is abundant, the paracellular pathway is thought to be predominant.
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In contrast, when dietary calcium is limited, the active, vitamin D-dependent transcellular pathway plays a major role in calcium absorption. A number of food constituents have been suggested as potential enhancers of calcium absorption. Individual milk components, such as lactose, lactulose, and casein phosphopeptides have in the past attracted considerable attention, and these have been reviewed extensively elsewhere 20 — In addition, there is a growing body of evidence to show that nondigestible oligosaccharides can improve calcium absorption in some life-stage groups.
This evidence base has been reviewed elsewhere 1923 and is the subject of 3 further articles in this Supplement Abrams et al. Vitamin D is found naturally in very few foods; endogenous synthesis of vitamin D, therefore, which occurs when skin is exposed to UVB radiation from sunlight during summer, is a principal determinant of vitamin D status.
Thus, during the winter months there is an increased reliance on dietary supply of vitamin D. One study in men with low bone mass found that although both resistance training and weight-bearing exercise increased bone density in several areas of the body, only resistance training had this effect in the hip Performing weight-bearing and resistance training exercises can help increase bone formation during bone growth and protect bone health in older adults, including those with low bone density.
10 Natural Ways to Build Healthy Bones
Consume Enough Protein Getting enough protein is important for healthy bones. Researchers have reported that low protein intake decreases calcium absorption and may also affect rates of bone formation and breakdown However, concerns have also been raised that high-protein diets leach calcium from bones in order to counteract increased acidity in the blood. Nevertheless, studies have found that this doesn't occur in people who consume up to grams of protein daily, as long as this is balanced with plenty of plant foods and adequate calcium intake 23 In fact, research suggests that older women, in particular, appear to have better bone density when they consume higher amounts of protein 2526 In a large, six-year observational study of overpostmenopausal women, higher protein intake was linked to a lower risk of forearm fractures and significantly higher bone density in the hip, spine and total body What's more, diets containing a greater percentage of calories from protein may help preserve bone mass during weight loss.
In a one-year study, women who consumed 86 grams of protein daily on a calorie-restricted diet lost less bone mass from their arm, spine, hip and leg areas than women who consumed 60 grams of protein per day A low protein intake can lead to bone loss, while a high protein intake can help protect bone health during aging and weight loss.
Eat High-Calcium Foods Throughout the Day Calcium is the most important mineral for bone health, and it's the main mineral found in your bones. Because old bone cells are constantly broken down and replaced by new ones, it's important to consume calcium daily to protect bone structure and strength. The RDI for calcium is 1, mg per day for most people, although teens need 1, mg and older women require 1, mg However, the amount of calcium your body actually absorbs can vary greatly.
Interestingly, if you eat a meal containing more than mg of calcium, your body will absorb much less of it than if you consume a lower amount. Therefore, it's best to spread your calcium intake throughout the day by including one high-calcium food from this list at each meal. It's also best to get calcium from foods rather than supplements. Calcium is the main mineral found in bones and must be consumed every day to protect bone health. Spreading your calcium intake throughout the day will optimize absorption.
Vitamin D plays several roles in bone health, including helping your body absorb calcium. Indeed, studies have shown that children and adults with low vitamin D levels tend to have lower bone density and are more at risk for bone loss than people who get enough 32 Unfortunately, vitamin D deficiency is very common, affecting about one billion people worldwide You may be able to get enough vitamin D through sun exposure and food sources such as fatty fish, liver and cheese.
However, many people need to supplement with up to 2, IU of vitamin D daily to maintain optimal levels. Vitamin K2 supports bone health by modifying osteocalcin, a protein involved in bone formation.
This modification enables osteocalcin to bind to minerals in bones and helps prevent the loss of calcium from bones. MK-4 exists in small amounts in liver, eggs and meat. Fermented foods like cheese, sauerkraut and a soybean product called natto contain MK A small study in healthy young women found that MK-7 supplements raised vitamin K2 blood levels more than MK-4 Nevertheless, other studies have shown that supplementing with either form of vitamin K2 supports osteocalcin modification and increases bone density in children and postmenopausal women 363738 In a study of women 50—65 years of age, those who took MK-4 maintained bone density, whereas the group that received a placebo showed a significant decrease in bone density after 12 months However, another month study found no significant difference in bone loss between women whose diets were supplemented with natto and those who did not take natto Getting adequate amounts of vitamins D and K2 from food or supplements may help protect bone health.
In addition to slowing down your metabolism, creating rebound hunger and causing muscle mass loss, it can also be harmful to bone health. Studies have shown that diets providing fewer than 1, calories per day can lead to lower bone density in normal-weight, overweight or obese individuals 414243 In one study, obese women who consumed calories per day for four months experienced a significant loss of bone density from their hip and upper thigh region, regardless of whether they performed resistance training To build and maintain strong bones, follow a well-balanced diet that provides at least 1, calories per day.
It should include plenty of protein and foods rich in vitamins and minerals that support bone health.
Diet, Nutrition, and Bone Health | The Journal of Nutrition | Oxford Academic
Diets providing too few calories have been found to reduce bone density, even when combined with resistance exercise. Consume a balanced diet with at least 1, calories daily to preserve bone health.
Consider Taking a Collagen Supplement While there isn't a lot of research on the topic yet, early evidence suggests that collagen supplements may help protect bone health. Collagen is the main protein found in bones. It contains the amino acids glycine, proline and lysine, which help build bone, muscle, ligaments and other tissues. Collagen hydrolysate comes from animal bones and is commonly known as gelatin.
It has been used to relieve joint pain for many years. Although most studies have looked at collagen's effects on joint conditions like arthritis, it appears to have beneficial effects on bone health as well 45 A week study found that giving postmenopausal women with osteoporosis a combination of collagen and the hormone calcitonin led to a significant reduction in markers of collagen breakdown Emerging evidence suggests that supplementing with collagen may help preserve bone health by reducing collagen breakdown.
In addition to eating a nutritious diet, maintaining a healthy weight can help support bone health. For example, being underweight increases the risk of osteopenia and osteoporosis. This is especially the case in postmenopausal women who have lost the bone-protective effects of estrogen. In fact, low body weight is the main factor contributing to reduced bone density and bone loss in this age group 47 ,