20th-century international relations - World War II, –45 | mephistolessiveur.info
History of World War II by region and country Decade for a Culture of Peace and Non-Violence for the Children of the World. Britain, France, USSR, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, Greece U.S. and Filipino troops on Corregidor island in Manila Bay surrender to. Along with thousands of other Danish Jews, Bent and his family were . "This is the only link I have to my grandmother, Sophie Storch, this.
The mass escape of Jews from Nazi-occupied Denmark
At a cabinet meeting the same day, it was suggested to seek a written confirmation of this promise in an addendum to the protocol. Stauning agreed on these terms, since it would effectively make the signing meaningless. The Danish foreign office drew up a list of four terms that stated that Denmark only committed itself to "police action" in Denmark and that the nation remained neutral.
The German foreign ministry agreed to the terms, provided that the protocol was not made public, which was the intent of the Danish foreign ministry. As Berlin grew tired of waiting, Joachim von Ribbentrop called Copenhagen on 23 November threatening to "cancel the peaceful occupation" unless Denmark complied. If the German demands were not met Germany "would no longer be committed by the promises given on 9 April " the threat of a state of war, a Nazi government, and territorial dismemberment.
In a Cabinet meeting at 2 PM that day, Stauning, ScaveniusMunch and two additional ministers advocated accession; seven ministers opposed. In a meeting the same day in the Nine Man committee, three more ministers caved in, most notably Vilhelm Buhl, stating "Cooperation is the last shred of our defence".
Prime Minister Stauning's notes from the day stated: The objective is a political positioning. But this was established by the occupation. The danger of saying no—I would not like to see a Terboven here. Sign with addendum—that modifies the pact. The next crisis came when he was met by Renthe-Fink, who informed him that Ribbentrop had informed Fink that there had been a "misunderstanding" regarding the four clauses and that clause 2 would be deleted.
This had specified that Denmark only had police-like obligations. Scavenius had a strict mandate not to change a sentence and stated that he would be unable to return to Copenhagen with a different content from the one agreed upon, but that he was willing to reopen negotiations to clarify the matter further. This reply enraged Ribbentrop and rumours claim that he was considering ordering the SS to arrest Scavenius.
He watered down the wording but left the content pretty intact. Nonetheless, for Scavenius it was a strong setback that the four clauses would now only get the status of a unilateral Danish declaration Aktennotitz with a comment on it by Fink that its content "no doubt" was in compliance with the pact.
Furthermore, he was instructed to give a public speech while abstaining from mentioning the four clauses but only making general statements about Denmark's status as a neutral nation. Scavenius signed the pact.
At the following reception, the Italian ambassador described Scavenius as "a fish dragged on land Lidegaard comments that the old man remained defiant: The cabinet sent a car to pick up Scavenius at the ferry, to avoid his riding the train alone to Copenhagen. At the same time a large demonstration gathered outside of Parliamentwhich led the Minister of Justice, Eigil Thune Jacobsento remark that he didn't like to see Danish police beating up students singing patriotic songs.
When Scavenius had returned to Copenhagen, he asked the cabinet to debate once and for all where the red lines existed in Danish relations with Germany. This debate concluded that three red lines existed: No legislation discriminating against Jews, Denmark should never join the Axis Pact between Germany, Italy, and Japan, No unit of the Danish army should ever fight against foreign forces. To the surprise of many, Scavenius accepted these instructions without hesitation.
Allies of World War II - Wikipedia
The German army command deployed 40 of its divisions, including all six panzer armoured divisions and two-thirds of its 3, aircraft in the east. The so-called Siegfried Line in the west, manned by 11 active divisions and reserve units as they became available, sufficed to block a French advance.
German tanks quickly burst into the rear, while dive-bombing Stukas disrupted Polish supply and reinforcements.
The Polish air force was destroyed in 48 hours. Within a week two panzer corps advanced miles to the outskirts of Warsaw and the Bug River line to the south.
On September 17 the pincers closed, the Soviet army invaded from the east, and the Polish government fled to Romaniawhence it made its way to London as the first of many European governments-in-exile.
The Warsaw garrison surrendered on the 27th. In a protocol of May 15,the French had promised to take the offensive two weeks after mobilization.
Instead, General Maurice Gamelin contented himself with a brief sortie into the Saar, after which the French withdrew to the Maginot Line.
Stalin told the German ambassador on September Only after this second German-Soviet pact did Communist parties in the West fully embrace their new Nazi ally and oppose Western military resistance to Hitler. Henceforth, Stalin was a fearful and solicitous neighbour of the Nazi empire, and he moved quickly to absorb the regions accorded him.
When Finland resisted Soviet demands for border rectifications and bases, Stalin ordered the Red Army to attack on November He expected a lightning victory of his own that would impress Hitler and increase Soviet security in the Baltic. The disorganized Red Army, by contrast, showed the effect of the recent military purges. In some cases only the machine guns of NKVD political police units kept the soldiers at the front. Soviet military prestige suffered a devastating blow.
The Chamberlain Cabinet, betrayed so often by Hitler, refused to acknowledge the demarches, however, and Hitler ordered preparations for an attack in the west by November The army high command protested vigorously against a winter campaign, and bad weather did force a postponement first to January and then to the spring.
Since the French and British were loath to take initiativethe Phony War dragged on.
Combat occurred only at sea. The battle cruisers Scharnhorst and Gneisenau and pocket battleship Deutschland eluded British pursuit and returned safely to port. The Graf Spee, however, caught in the South Atlantic, sank nine merchantmen before sustaining damage from British cruisers. It then put in at MontevideoUruguaycausing a diplomatic crisis for the South American states.
The naval situation, therefore, came quickly to resemble that of World War I, with the British fleet maintaining a distant blockade in the North Sea and the Germans waging a submarine war against British shipping. The Russo-Finnish Warhowever, suggested that Scandinavia might provide a theatre in which to strike a blow at the German-Russian alliance. Beyond the feckless expulsion of the Soviet Union from the League of Nations on December 14, Britain and France contemplated helping the brave Finns—even at the risk of war with Russia—and perhaps cutting the flow of Swedish iron to Germany.
The French wanted to send several divisions to Narvik in Norway and thence by land to Finland. Stalin had given a hint of the future by setting up a Finnish Democratic Republic during the war, under the Comintern agent Otto Kuusinen, but he settled for a treaty with Helsinki on March 12,in which Finland ceded the Karelian isthmus and leased a naval base to the U.
He and Neville Chamberlain hoped at least to deny the Germans possible U-boat bases by mining or occupying Norwegian ports. But the German navytoo, had persuaded Hitler of the strategic importance of Norwayand on April 9, the day after British minelaying began, the Germans suddenly seized the ports from Oslo to Narvik in a brilliant sea and air operation, and occupied Denmark by Blitzkrieg. British troops contested Norway and managed to capture Narvik on May 27, but by then greater events were unfolding on the Continent.
In the first of many ringing speeches that would sustain the British spirit, Churchill told his nation: In May the German army concentrated divisions on the Western front, including 12 panzer divisions, 3, tanks and 5, warplanes.
The French army totalled 94 divisions, the British 10, and the neutral Belgians and Dutch 22 and eight respectively. The French army possessed some 2, tanks, but less than a third were concentrated in armoured units.
The French air force, disrupted during the Popular Frontwas in any case antiquated, and 90 percent of the artillery dated from World War I. The German plan of attack in the west, meanwhile, had evolved since the previous autumn. The concomitant risk was that Allied counterattacks might pinch off and destroy the armoured spearheads at a blow.
The German offensive struck with devastating effect on May Within days the Dutch surrendered. By May 20, German tanks reached the coast at Abbeville and cut the Allied armies in two. For 17 years he had preached the necessity and beauty of war, believing that a neutral Italy would cease to be regarded as a Great Power and that he needed war in order to fulfill his expansionist fantasies and permit the full triumph of Fascism at home.
Yet in August he demanded from Germany 6, tons of coal, 2, tons of steeland 7, tons of oil before he could honour the Pact of Steel. In fact, war preparations under the corrupt and incompetent Fascists remained feeble, and during these months of nonbelligerence, Mussolini himself took sick and at times even considered joining the Allies.
On March 18 he met Hitler at the Brenner Pass and was told that the Germans did not need him to win the war but that he would be allowed to participate and thus escape second-rate status in the Mediterranean.
- Neutral powers during World War II
- Denmark in World War II
- Allies of World War II
That moment seemed to arrive in June With French defeat assured, Mussolini declared war on France and Britain on the 10th. With German forces streaming east and south, the French government fled on the 11th to Bordeaux and debated three courses of action: Churchill, concerned that the French fleet not fall into German hands, went so far as to offer Anglo-French political union on June Reynaud wanted to continue the war but was outvoted. The French navy and air force were neutralized.
In another meeting of dictators on the 18th, Hitler disappointed Mussolini with his talk of a mild peace lest French forces be driven to defect to Britain.
Hitler at once toyed with the notion of winning the Vichy French to an active alliance, thrusting Mussolini farther into the background.
But the British Hurricanes and Spitfires were technically superior to all the German fighters except the Me, which was restricted in its range to the zone south of London. The British radar screen and ground control network permitted British fighters to concentrate on each German attack. For 10 days the blitz continued night and day over London, the climax coming on the 15th when nearly 60 German planes were shot down.
Two days later Hitler granted that air superiority was not to be had and postponed Operation Sea Lion. Frustrated on sea and in the air, Hitler pondered how his overwhelming land power might be used to persuade Britain to call it quits. To be sure, the Germans raised the prospect of an occupation of Gibraltar numerous times with Francobut the latter always found an excuse to remain neutral.
A Catholic authoritarianhe was also contemptuous of the neo-pagan Fascists. After their last meeting, Hitler confessed that he would rather have his teeth pulled than go through another bout with Franco. On July 7,Ciano visited Hitler seeking approval for an expansion of the war to Yugoslavia and Greece. The Italian commander broke off the action after one hit on one of his battleships, whereupon the Fascist air force arrived to bomb indiscriminately friend and foe alike, doing little damage to either.
Frustrated in the Balkans and at sea, Mussolini ordered his Libyan army to cross the Western desert and conquer Egypt. This adventure soon turned to disaster. In Germany signed a pact with Romania for oil and arms transfers. On November 8, General Alexandros Papagos counterattacked, and within a month the Greeks had turned the tables, occupying one-third of Albania. Prime Minister Ioannis Metaxas refused to let the British into Greece for fear of provoking the Germans; indeed, he hoped to drive Italy out of the Balkans before German help might arrive, and to induce Yugoslavia and Turkey to make common cause with Greece against the Fascists.
Ribbentrop still hoped to persuade him that Britain could be induced to relent through diplomacyand his last achievement was the Tripartite or Axis Pact between Germany, Italy, and Japan on September 27, Presumably, this alliance would deflect U. But London stood firm, and Hitler grew impatient to get on with his real chore of seizing a Ukrainian empire for the German master race.
Though Stalin had meticulously observed his pact with Hitler, their rivalry in the Balkans strained relations. Conquest of the U. On December 18 he ordered the army to prepare Operation Barbarossa by May 15, German troops entered Romania on January 7,and Bulgaria on February Mussolini made Badoglio a scapegoat and in November issued the first of his pitiful appeals to Hitler to bail him out.
At their Berghof meeting on January 20,Hitler informed Mussolini of his plans to invade Greece. The death of Metaxas in the following days, in turn, led the Greeks to accept a British expeditionary force.
Danish History and Culture
Accordingly, Hitler pressured Yugoslavia to permit the passage of German troops, but air force officers in Belgrade staged a coup on March 27 and signed a treaty with Moscow. In Chiang was forced to cease his anti-communist military campaigns after his kidnap and release by Zhang Xueliangand reluctantly formed a nominal alliance with the Communists, while the Communists agreed to fight under the nominal command of the Nationalists against the Japanese.
The Soviet Union, wishing to keep China in the fight against Japan, supplied China with military assistance untilwhen it signed a non-aggression pact with Japan. Continuous clashes between the Communists and Nationalists behind enemy lines cumulated in a major military conflict between these two former allies that effectively ended their cooperation against the Japanese, and China had been divided between the internationally recognized Nationalist China under the leadership of Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek and Communist China under the leadership of Mao Zedong until the Japanese surrendered in In the early s, Sino-German cooperation between the Nationalist Government and Germany in military and industrial matters.
Nazi Germany provided the largest proportion of Chinese arms imports and technical expertise.
Relations between the Nationalist Government and Italy during the s varied, however even after the Nationalist Government followed League of Nations sanctions against Italy for its invasion of Ethiopiathe international sanctions proved unsuccessful, and relations between the Fascist government in Italy and the Nationalist Government in China returned to normal shortly afterwards.
The United States opposed Japan's invasion of China in that it considered an illegal violation of China's sovereigntyand offered the Nationalist Government diplomatic, economic, and military assistance during its war against Japan. In particular, the United States sought to bring the Japanese war effort to a complete halt by imposing a full embargo on all trade between the United States to Japan, Japan was dependent on the United States for 80 percent of its petroleumresulting in an economic and military crisis for Japan that could not continue its war effort with China without access to petroleum.
Denmark in World War II - Wikipedia
Roosevelt accepted dispatching them to China in early The Soviet Union recognised the Republic of China but urged reconciliation with the Communist Party of China and inclusion of Communists in the government. Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek thought Allied victory was assured with the entrance of the United States into the war, and he declared war on Germany and the other Axis nations.
However, Allied aid remained low because the Burma Road was closed and the Allies suffered a series of military defeats against Japan early on in the campaign.