Alexander the Great - Serious Science
When Alexander was 13, Philip called on the great philosopher Aristotle to tutor his As it became clear Alexander would win the battle, Darius fled with what. Alexander the Great - faq - Serious Science. We can chart the deterioration of the relationship between Philip and Alexander from this time. Alexander III of Macedon commonly known as Alexander the Great was a king ( basileus) of the . Upon Philip's return, he dispatched Alexander with a small force to subdue Main article: Personal relationships of Alexander the Great.
Growing up, Alexander rarely saw his father, who was usually involved in long military campaigns. Olympias, a fierce and possessive mother, dominated her son's youth and filled him with a deep resentment of his father.
Nonetheless, their son's education was important to both parents. One of Alexander's first teachers was Leonidas, a relative of Olympias, who struggled to control the defiant boy. Philip hired Leonidas to train the youth in math, archery, and horsemanship the training and care of horses.
Alexander's favorite tutor was Lysimachus.
This tutor devised a game in which Alexander impersonated the hero Achilles. Achilles was a heroic Greek warrior from a famous ancient poem called the Iliad.
Alexander the Great's family mystery gets more complicated
Achilles became the model of the noble warrior for Alexander, and he modeled himself after this hero. This game delighted Olympias because her family claimed the hero as an ancestor. In Philip asked Aristotle — B. For three years in the rural Macedonian village of Mieza, Aristotle taught Alexander philosophy, government, politics, poetry, drama, and the sciences. Aristotle wrote a shortened edition of the Iliad, which Alexander always kept with him.
Beginnings of the soldier Alexander's education at Mieza ended in B. While Philip was away fighting a war, he left the sixteen-year-old prince as acting king. Within a year Alexander led his first military attack against a rival tribe.
In he led the cavalry troops who fight battles on horseback and helped his father smash the forces of Athens and Thebes, two Greek city-states. Alexander's relationship and military cooperation with his father ended soon after Philip took control of the Corinthian League. The Corinthian League was a military alliance made up of all the Greek states except for Sparta.
Philip then married another woman, which forced Alexander and Olympias to flee Macedon. Eventually Philip and Alexander were reunited. Alexander as king In the summer of B. During this event Philip was assassinated by a young Macedonian noble, Pausanias.
After his father's death Alexander sought the approval of the Macedonian army for his bid for kingship. The generals agreed and proclaimed him king, making Alexander the ruler of Macedon.
In order to secure his throne, Alexander then killed everyone who could have a possible claim to the kingship. Although he was the king of Macedon, Alexander did not automatically gain control of the Corinthian League. Some Greek states rejoiced at Philip's murder, and Athens wanted to rule the League.
Alexander the Great Biography - family, children, parents, death, history, wife, mother, young, son
Throughout Greece independence movements arose. Immediately Alexander led his armies to Greece to stop these movements.
- Relationship between Alexander the Great and his father, Philip
- Philip II of Macedon
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The Greek states quickly recognized him as their leader, while Sparta still refused to join. The League gave Alexander unlimited military powers to attack Persia, a large kingdom to the east of Greece. Asian campaign In October B. It seems more likely that the romance with Barsine was invented by the boy's backers to validate his parentage. Robin Lane Fox writes, "Roxana was said by contemporaries to be the most beautiful lady in all Asia. She deserved her name of Roshanakmeaning 'little star', probably rokhshana or roshana which means light and illuminating in Persian.Alexander and Philip - Colin Farrell and Val Kilmer - Alexander (2004)
Marriage to a local noble's family made sound political sense. But contemporaries implied that Alexander, aged 28, also lost his heart.
Personal relationships of Alexander the Great
A wedding-feast for the two of them was arranged high on one of the Sogdian rocks. Alexander and his bride shared a loaf of bread, a custom still observed in Turkestan. Characteristically, Alexander sliced it with his sword.
Alexander fell passionately in love with her and determined to raise her to the position of his consort. Roxana wished to cement her own position and that of her son, unborn at that time, by ridding herself of a rival who could be—or claim to be—pregnant. According to Plutarch's account, Stateira 's sister, Drypetiswas murdered at the same time; Carney believes that Plutarch was mistaken, and it was actually Parysatis who died with Stateira.
The child was never proven to be a legitimate child of Alexander. Bagoas[ edit ] Ancient sources tell of another favorite, Bagoas ; a eunuch " in the very flower of boyhood, with whom Darius was intimate and with whom Alexander would later be intimate.
The Paionians and the Thracians had sacked and invaded the eastern regions of Macedonia, while the Athenians had landed, at Methoni on the coast, a contingent under a Macedonian pretender called Argeus. Early military career[ edit ] See also: Ancient Macedonian army and Government of Macedonia ancient kingdom Using diplomacy, Philip pushed back the Paionians and Thracians promising tributes, and crushed the 3, Athenian hoplites Momentarily free from his opponents, he concentrated on strengthening his internal position and, above all, his army.
His most important innovation was doubtless the introduction of the phalanx infantry corps, armed with the famous sarissaan exceedingly long spear, at the time the most important army corps in Macedonia.
Philip had married Audatagreat-granddaughter of the Illyrian king of DardaniaBardyllis. However, this did not prevent him from marching against the Illyrians in and crushing them in a ferocious battle in which some 7, Illyrians died By this move, Philip established his authority inland as far as Lake Ohrid and earned the favour of the Epirotes. The Athenians had been unable to conquer Amphipoliswhich commanded the gold mines of Mount Pangaion.
So Philip reached an agreement with Athens to lease the city to them after its conquest, in exchange for Pydna lost by Macedon in However, after conquering Amphipolis, Philip kept both cities He subsequently conquered Potidaeathis time keeping his word and ceding it to the League in Alexander was born inthe same year as Philip's racehorse won at the Olympic Games.
He then established a powerful garrison there to control its mines, which yielded much of the gold he later used for his campaigns. In the meantime, his general Parmenion defeated the Illyrians again.
In — he besieged Methonethe last city on the Thermaic Gulf controlled by Athens.
Personal relationships of Alexander the Great - Wikipedia
During the siege, Philip was injured in his eye. It was later removed surgically. Philip also attacked Abdera and Maronea, on the Thracian coast — In summer he invaded Thessalydefeating 7, Phocians under the brother of Onomarchus.
The latter however defeated Philip in the two succeeding battles. Philip returned to Thessaly the next summer, this time with an army of 20, infantry and 3, cavalry including all[ clarification needed ] Thessalian troops.
In the Battle of Crocus Field 6, Phocians fell, while 3, were taken as prisoners and later drowned. This battle earned Philip immense prestige, as well as the free acquisition of Pherae.
Philip was also tagus of Thessaly, and he claimed as his own Magnesiawith the important harbour of Pagasae.
There were no hostilities with Athens yet, but Athens was threatened by the Macedonian party which Philip's gold created[ clarification needed ] in Euboea.