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Bring security, manageability, and availability to your Microsoft Active Directory ( AD) environment. All AD services rely on DNS, so your AD deployment is only as . Active Directory (AD) is a directory service that Microsoft developed for the Windows domain .. Replication for Active Directory zones is automatically configured when DNS is activated in the domain based by site. . same tree when a descendant/ancestor (child/parent) relationship does not exist between the two domains. Greetings, I have been trying to teach myself a bit of Active Directory in my spare time, and I must admit, I still don't completely understand the.
Only groups are selectable, and members of OUs cannot be collectively assigned rights to directory objects. In Microsoft's Active Directory, OUs do not confer access permissions, and objects placed within OUs are not automatically assigned access privileges based on their containing OU. This is a design limitation specific to Active Directory. Other competing directories such as Novell NDS are able to assign access privileges through object placement within an OU.
Active Directory requires a separate step for an administrator to assign an object in an OU as a member of a group also within that OU. Relying on OU location alone to determine access permissions is unreliable, because the object may not have been assigned to the group object for that OU.
A common workaround for an Active Directory administrator is to write a custom PowerShell or Visual Basic script to automatically create and maintain a user group for each OU in their directory. The scripts are run periodically to update the group to match the OU's account membership, but are unable to instantly update the security groups anytime the directory changes, as occurs in competing directories where security is directly implemented into the directory itself.
Such groups are known as Shadow Groups. Once created, these shadow groups are selectable in place of the OU in the administrative tools. Microsoft refers to shadow groups in the Server Reference documentation, but does not explain how to create them.
There are no built-in server methods or console snap-ins for managing shadow groups. Common models are by business unit, by geographical location, by IT Service, or by object type and hybrids of these.
OUs should be structured primarily to facilitate administrative delegation, and secondarily, to facilitate group policy application.
Although OUs form an administrative boundary, the only true security boundary is the forest itself and an administrator of any domain in the forest must be trusted across all domains in the forest. Microsoft often refers to these partitions as 'naming contexts'. The 'Configuration' partition contains information on the physical structure and configuration of the forest such as the site topology.
Both replicate to all domains in the Forest.
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The 'Domain' partition holds all objects created in that domain and replicates only within its domain. Physical structure[ edit ] Sites are physical rather than logical groupings defined by one or more IP subnets.
Site definitions are independent of the domain and OU structure and are common across the forest. Sites are used to control network traffic generated by replication and also to refer clients to the nearest domain controllers DCs.
Microsoft Exchange Server uses the site topology for mail routing. Policies can also be defined at the site level. Each DC has a copy of the Active Directory. Servers joined to Active Directory that are not domain controllers are called Member Servers.
Global catalog GC servers provide a global listing of all objects in the Forest. However, to minimize replication traffic and keep the GC's database small, only selected attributes of each object are replicated. It has records for the different FSMO role holders. It even holds records for your KMS servers, if you run this optional service.
If this zone didn't exist, then you wouldn't be able to log on to your workstations or servers. What does the ad.
TechRepublic Tutorial: How DNS and Active Directory work together
It holds all of the records for your client computers, member servers, and the A records for your Domain Controllers. Why is this zone important? So that your workstations and servers can communicate with each other on the network. If this zone didn't exist, you could probably log in, but you wouldn't be able to do much else except browse the Internet. How do I get records in these zones?
The Difference between DNS and AD Domains - Active Directory Security Windows Server
Well, fortunately for you, that's easy. When you install and configure the DNS server settings during dcpromo, you should elect to allow Secure Updates Only if given the choice. Let's back up for a second. There are a few ways that a zone can get records in it: They are automatically added by workstations that are configured to use the DNS server.
This is the most common and should be used in tandem with "Secure Updates Only" in most scenarios. There are some edge cases where you don't want to go this way, but if you need the knowledge in this answer, then this is the way you want to do it.
By default, a Windows workstation or server will update its own records every 24 hours, or when a network adapter gets an IP address assigned to it, either via DHCP or statically. You manually create the record. This might happen if you need to create a CNAME or other type of record, or if you want an A record that isn't on a trusted AD computer, perhaps a Linux or OS X server that you want your clients to be able to resolve by name.
This isn't really a good idea, because it opens you up for zone poisoning. Zone poisoning or DNS poisoning is what happens when a client computer updates a zone with a malicious record and attempts to impersonate another computer on your network.
There are ways to secure this, and it does have its uses, but you're better off leaving it alone if you don't know. So, now that we have that out of the way we can get back on track. You've configured your AD DNS servers to only allow secure updates, your infrastructure is chugging along, and then you realize that you have a ton of duplicate records! What do you do about this? DNS Scavenging This article is required reading.
It details the best practices and settings that you'll need to configure for scavenging.
It's for Windows Serverbut it's still applicable. Scavenging is the answer to the duplicate record problem posed above. Imagine that you have a computer that gets an IP of