India–Pakistan cricket rivalry - Wikipedia
cricketers, the first Indian to score a Test century and the first to be sent home from a . tionship – Indian Muslims and their relations with Pakistan – came into play. passer-by observed the rush of the Muslims and commented, 'No wonder. Demand for the India-Pakistan match on Sunday was so great that the The match began with a minute's silence to commemorate the dead in London. in hand” and that there would be no return to bilateral cricket relations. Over the past decade, the relationship between India and Pakistan has India and Pakistan have not played a full series of matches — the.
Experts suggest that sports diplomacy may transcend cultural differences and bring people together. In a statement9 on 18 July at Islamabad, Pakistan President Asif Ali Zardari referred to the resumption of cricketing ties with India as a formidable confidence building measure and a way forward to encouraging people-to-people contact.
Undoubtedly, such inputs suggest it would add to the positive atmosphere which has been witnessed by the two countries after resumption of the bilateral dialogue.
Former Prime Minister of Pakistan, Syed Yousuf Raza Gilani also stated10 that World Cup semifinal match between India and Pakistan in Mohali proved to be a catalyst for improving ties between the two countries and that it had brought the two governments and two nations closer.
However, sports and politics have had both positive and negative implications over history. Nationalistic fervor are sometimes linked to victory or loss on sports fields. In case of India and Pakistan, cricket has frequently been the victim of poor relations between these neighbors with tours blocked for years because of bad-blood; nevertheless, it has also been used to build trust and confidence when ties are improving. Cricket diplomacy can play great role in enhancing bilateral relations of India and Pakistan but with the affirmative media presentation [ 5 ].
Cricket as an element for improving indo-pak relations Cricket has been an important element in the process of improving relations between India and Pakistan; and improvements have certainly been needed. Politics and sports are in a relatively long line of treatises that assert that it is naive and unrealistic to view the sport as separate and above social, economic, and more specifically, political activity.
Sports are linked to political socialization, formation of the political culture and development of national identity [ 6 ]. The more serious sport is to citizens, the more likely a government will use sport as a vehicle of policy and control.
Sport is an essential instrument serving the national and political integration of a country. Rajdeep Sardesai, wrote in his blog13 that Indo-Pak cricket could be compared with the diplomatic relations between the two countries and believes that it suffers from acute schizophrenia and is in a state of dilemma. InPakistani crowd were praising Indian Bowler, Balaji etc.
Rajdeep believes that there is a similarity between the two for their unpredictable nature. The result of the visit of Pakistani president Pervez Mushraff, in to India to watch a cricket match between India and Pakistan which effectively turned into the summit and the both countries agreed to open up the militarized frontier dividing the disputed Kashmir region.
Cricket has a long history as a platform for diplomacy and public diplomacy between India and Pakistan. Rockower [ 7 ] supports this by saying that the highlevel cricket diplomacy is helpful and beneficial for taking diplomacy wickets, real people-to-people cricket diplomacy would do far more to lower the levels of hostility between the two sides.
Sports journalism Sports journalism is a form of journalism that reports on sports topic and events. Sports journalism is an essential element of any news media organization. There is a socio-political significance of sports journalism. As the example of cricket the stories related to it transcends the game spirit and take on socio-political significance by connecting the people of more than two countries in the common thread of entertainment and enhancing the political relations.
Journalism is mainly concerned with the reporting of events and forming the emotional attachment to events by spreading the magic of words. Sports representation by media Representations of sports in the media are key sites for political and social struggles around race and nation.
Sport is often and appropriately, analyzed as being representative of broader social relations, it is an important site in its own right for the production, reproduction and transformation of social relations.
Social learning involves socialization and enduring effects on the viewer. Viewers may be more likely to internalize a media message if they think it is sponsored by someone they respect.
A sponsor effect would enhance whatever message is being conveyed.
The media have an impact on the attitude and behaviour of people and media helps society to bring at the peace situation [ 9 ]. Role of media in diplomacy Today media, which is found in various forms like television, radio, magazines, newspaper, and now on the information superhighway, can be said to have the power to inform the public about the truth.
The media has shaped the way society views itself and the thinks about politics, economy, religion etc. Media affects the perception of people about their leaders, shaping or formulation of policies of the country and it can even enhance or worsen the situation between two countries.
Issues are raised and projected through the salience assigned to them and how an issue is portrayed affects the way audiences look at it. Media promotes what it believes is easiest for the public to accept.
Public opinion is formed through media propaganda [ 10 ]. Propaganda unconsciously causes the public to act in ways they may not have, had they not been exposed. After studying the media influence on public opinion during the presidential elections in the US, Mc Coombs and Shaw, suggested this theory in highlighting that media are not, according to this approach, crude agents of propaganda.
- India–Pakistan relations
- India–Pakistan cricket rivalry
- Asia Cup 2018: History of India-Pakistan matches in the tournament
They organize public understanding. Agenda setting describes a very powerful influence of the media- the ability to tell us what issues are important. Every media organization sets an agenda to report and make the vote of people for a particular issue.
Print media It is one of the oldest and most basic forms of mass communication. Print media are the earliest form of modern mass media in India. It includes newspapers, weeklies, magazines, monthlies and other forms of printed journals. The contribution of print media is providing information and transfer of knowledge is remarkable.
Even after the advent of electronic media, the print media has not lost its charm or relevance [ 11 ]. Print media have the advantage of making a longer impact on the minds of the readers, with more in- depth reporting and analysis [ 12 ].
The Indian press has always enjoyed an exalted position and has been seen as a watchdog of the nation and its institution and same is the case with neighbouring country Pakistan. This is an achievement despite its limited reach and spread. There are only about 57 million copies of newspapers of all periodicity, for the population of million. In other words there is only one newspaper for every 15 persons Newspapers help in shaping public opinion and influence decision making.
Credibility is the central theme of media writing. So the journalists and editors also realize their responsibility and the need to be fair and just, in informing honestly and earnestly, because their readers comprise a large amorphous and heterogeneous audience [ 13 ]. Mass media can produce a change not only in attitudes but also in behavior and maintains a well designed media campaign aimed specifically at influencing behavior can play a crucial role by creating a positive social environment conducive to behavioral change.
For example both India and Pakistan media presenting the opposite team in positive frame can affect the behaviour and attitude of people in two nations. Complaints about the fairness of umpires also became routine. The Indo-Pakistani War of and subsequent War of put hold on India-Pakistan cricket that lasted tillwhen India toured Pakistan and cricket resumed for a brief period.
In the post period, politics became a direct factor in the holding of cricketing events. India has suspended cricketing ties with Pakistan several times following terrorist attacks or other hostilities. The resumption of cricketing ties in came with the emergence of heads of government in both India and Pakistan who were not directly connected with the war and coincided with their formal initiatives to normalize bilateral relations.
Shortly after a period of belligerency during the Operation Brasstacks war gamesPakistani president Zia-ul-Haq was invited to watch the India-Pakistan test match being played in the Indian city of Jaipur.
Asia Cup History of India-Pakistan matches in the tournament | cricket | Hindustan Times
This form of cricket diplomacy has occurred several times afterwards as well. It was a test of nerve, but after bowling Pakistan out forManinder Singh grabbing 7 for 27, India succumbed for and then setslid to a run defeat. An eighth-wicket stand of 51 in Pakistan's second innings was decisive, but Sunil Gavaskar's 96 almost took India to victory.
India controlled the second and fourth Tests but slow overs rates and negative tactics allied to turgid pitches nullified any advantage. In the limited-overs series, Pakistan's superiority was beyond dispute. They had a number of utility players in their ranks, any one of whom could fashion a match-winning effort with the bat, and they won the series India 1 Pakistan 5 Pakistan After series on series of umpiring controversies, neutral umpires - John Hampshire and John Holder - stood for the first time in the four Tests.
There were still errors, but there was far less tension on the field. The Test series ended in stalemate. Pakistan had the better of the exchanges in the first two Tests but were unable to translate their advantage into victory, while India appeared happy to settle for the draw.
Sanjay Manjrekar made runs in the series at an average of Moreover, he made his runs with a classicism only too rare in the era of the all-pervasive one-day international. Mohammad Azharuddin and Navjot Sidhu made vital contributions in those Tests in which the bowlers had more going for them, and year-old Sachin Tendulkar made runs at critical stages to bolster a fiercely motivated side playing under a new captain in Krish Srikkanth.
Srikkanth himself, however, failed with the bat and was to be unceremoniously dropped after the series. Wasim Akram, with 18 wickets, was the outstanding bowler of the series but support bowling was nowhere in his class, even if Imran Khan did take 13 wickets.
The one-day series never took off, the weather conspiring to deny the thrills associated with the short game. The crowds at these matches were invariably close to capacity - whereas those at the Test matches were not encouraging enough - but trouble caused by a rowdy Karachi crowd led to the abandonment of the third ODI.
This disturbance accentuated undercurrents in the troubled sea of India-Pakistan relations, in which cricket had once been an island of normality. Pakistan 2 India 0 Pakistan The Indians had not toured Pakistan since because of political tensions, though they had continued to meet regularly for ODIs, usually on neutral territory, such as Sharjah. In fact they had played each other only a week earlier, in Toronto, where India won the Sahara Cup They finally returned to Pakistan for a short one-day series which opened India's Golden Jubilee celebrations.
Pakistan took revenge for their Canadian setback, with Saeed Anwar leading them to a victory Rameez Raja, the previous week's captain, had already been dropped. The crowds were mostly welcoming, though there was trouble during the second match, in Karachi, when the Indian fielders were stoned by some spectators, causing an abrupt end to Pakistan's innings.
That resulted in Pakistan's only defeat, but a stunning century from Ijaz Ahmed at Lahore brought the series to a triumphant conclusion. Pakistan India India This series was about much more than cricket. It was Pakistan's first Test series with India for nine years, and the first on Indian soil since Three previous attempts to organise a Pakistani tour of India in the s had been aborted because of threats of disruption by right-wing Hindu fundamentalists.
A history of India v Pakistan
Inboth countries had tested nuclear weapons, adding a new dimension to their traditional tension. Though there were only two Tests a third at Calcutta, won by Pakistan, was regarded as part of the separate Asian Test Championshipit was probably the most exciting of the 11 series between the two. Pakistan won a run victory at Chennaionly for India to strike back with a massive win at Delhi.
Kumble provided the sensational conclusion to the series by taking all ten wickets in the final innings, only the second man in Test cricket to take a perfect ten; he devastated Pakistan's batting with his lift and bounce, taking his ten wickets for His overall analysis was 10 for Shortly before the series, activists dug up the Test pitch in Delhi, forcing the Indian board to move the first Test to Chennai. Shortly afterwards, the board's offices at Mumbai were ransacked and officials manhandled.
Commandos and plain-clothes officers shadowed the Pakistani team everywhere. The board even engaged snake charmers, after rumours that extremists might release snakes in the crowds or on to the pitch.
But the two Tests went off without any trouble: The Chennai Test attracted an estimated 50, spectators a day, and the Delhi Test nearly 40, a day. The tournament was a triumph for Pakistan, who were 26 for 6 against India on the opening day at Calcutta but fought back to win by 46 runs, despite Javagal Srinath's 13 for India were left grumbling about a system of bonus points which left them out of a final in which Pakistan easily beat Sri Lanka.
At Lahore, Sri Lanka gained the bonus point needed to eliminate India while Wasim Akram kept himself out of the attack. Pakistan denied any wrong-doingand India had themselves to blame too; they had squandered a winning position at Calcutta.
India 0 Pakistan 1 Pakistan The feel-good factor, which the then existing Indian government glorified, spread to the cricketing fields in Pakistan where India toured for a full Test series after 15 years.
The Pakistan board, languishing financially due to repeated pull-outs due to security fears, simply had to host India to make amends and what followed was security usually reserved for Heads of State. It was a series where India came of age as a fighting unit under Sourav Ganguly. Karachi, then a cricket-starved city, got to witness the most amazing ODIs which went down to the wire thanks to an unbelievable catch by Mohammed Kaif.
Pakistan fought back in the next two ODIs until dew and reckless batting in the early overs led to their undoing in the last two matches. India went on to grab their first ever ODI series win in Pakistan, The Tests that followed lacked the crowd response, and India continued their momentum when Virender Sehwag blasted Pakistan out of contention with at Multan, the first triple century by an Indian in Tests.
How India managed to skittle out Pakistan twice in the flattest of decks with almost an entire day to spare confounded many.