Foreign relations of Nigeria - Wikipedia
Nigeria is the number one country of origin for international students from Africa: Due to colonial ties and a shared language, the United Kingdom has Nigeria's education system encompasses three different sectors: basic. The study aimed at examining whether or not Nigeria's foreign policy under Nations seek to attain different goals and objectives in the process of policy is to establish and maintain a cordial relationship with other nations as Educational, Sporting etc. and it varies in form and focus according to the circumstance . Since independence, with Jaja Wachuku as the first Minister of Foreign Affairs and Commons, There are many Nigerian organizations outside the country. mechanised army division and other material support to Joshua Nkomo and Robert United Nations Economic Commission for Africa · United Nations Educational.
Components of foreign policy According to Obi Foreign policy is a product of many factors and forces [ 1 ]. Some of these factors and forces are natural, while some are man-made. Also while some are permanent others are temporary. It is the sum total of these that are referred to as components of foreign policy.
Rodee in Obi states that in devising foreign policy, a nation must consider certain basic facts of its existence [ 1 ].
- Foreign relations of Nigeria
The frame of reference includes its geographical situation, population potential, economic endowment and ideological environment. Brecher in Obi summed the components as geography, external and global environment, personalities, economic and military position and public opinion as the major components of foreign policy. Rosenau in Obi differs a bit in his own components [ 1 ].
He listed size, geography, economic development, culture and history, great power structure alliances, technology, social structure, moods of opinion, political accountability, governmental structure, and situational factors both external and internal.
The geographical characteristics of size, topography, shape and climate are important factors.
France and Nigeria
A state with a sizeable territory, good climate, natural defence boundaries, arable land for food production and a shape which is compact and easier to defend is seen as possessing the necessary power potential that enables a state to prosecute independent foreign policy. Also, the geographical location of a country, to a very large extent determines its defence policies. Countries that have aggressive and troublesome neighbors must have a policy based on how to contain them, either through arm build-up or through military alliances.
The military strength of a nation to a large extent influences its foreign policy. Countries that are militarily strong often adopt aggressive postures on issues they feel strongly about. This is because they back their tough stance with actions.
Morganthau in Obi states that the dynamic force which moulds international relations is to be found in the states drive for power. Power is also a means for serving national interest. Nations that are militarily strong, most often believe that in international politics, might is right. All their policies are framed in such a way that when persuasion fails, power comes in handy to help them actualize their goals.
In defining foreign policy, Karl Deutsch in Obi included the pursuit and protection of a country's economic interest. This goes to show the importance of economic consideration in foreign policy.The Importance of the Relationship Between Nigeria and the United States
Nations necessity to engage in trade with other nations in other to sell what they have in abundance and buy what they need and do not have at all or sufficiently reflects their economic interest.
The ability of every state to pursue its foreign policy successfully also depends on its economic position. Developed countries because of their developed economy have been able to pursue their foreign policy with much success. Foreign policies like domestic policies are product of various processes.
The elite who make these policies are human beings, who have their individual preferences, world views and emotions. The decisions which they make to a large extent reflect their personality. Frankel in Obi states that policy choices flow inexorably from the composite images of competing elites within the political system.
It is therefore very difficult to divorce the personality of a leader from the policies of his government. It is therefore apt to say that the personality of leaders plays a very prominent role in determining foreign policy of their countries.
According to Obi, though a populous nation does not automatically translate to a strong nation, population is a factor in the strength of nations. A country's population is a very important factor in its rating and status abroad. Public opinion as a factor in foreign policy making is particularly important in real democratic countries where the government cannot easily go against the grain of public opinion.
Therefore foreign public opinion determines foreign policy of a country. President Olusegun Obasanjo, at inauguration inherited a nation with a battered image and without credibility externally.
He made efforts to build the country's image and re-integrate Nigeria into the world while regaining her lost glory through shuttle diplomacy. The foreign policy direction by the Obasanjo administration was intended to address and redress the perceived inadequacy inherent in concentricism African centred foreign policy: He nonetheless, set out in achieving this lofty principle through a number of approaches.
The most visible was his deliberate decision to personally embark on shuttle political diplomacy, earning him the title of the most travelled Nigerian Head of State in Oluyemi [ 8 ]. The election that brought President Yar'Adua into power was reported by international observers as being flawed and most rigged in Nigeria. The European Union specifically criticised the elections as being seriously faulty and did not meet the required international standards.
The democratic credibility of the country became questionable as a result [ 8 ]. According to Agbu citizen diplomacy is a political concept depicting the involvement of average citizens engaging representatives of another country either inadvertently or by design [ 9 ].
At the time President Yar'Adua came into office, it was worthy of note that his health had been severely threatened. While he was trying to manage his ill-health, Yar'Adua made no provisions for the Vice President to act in his absence. Thus, the consequence was that the ship of the Nigerian state was sailing rudderless on the international waters of foreign policy.
Without functional institutions and without a leader, Nigeria's foreign relations and indeed the State of Nigeria also went into coma when Yar'Adua went into coma in Saudi Arabian hospital. Nigeria failed to show up at important international meetings, lost many positions in multilateral associations, forsook obligations, and found herself in a situation where many of her allies started wondering what had gone wrong with Nigeria This eventually led to the death of late Yar'Adua on May 5thhis Vice, former President Jonathan was appointed acting president of Nigeria until the election where he won the seat of the president of Nigeria.
In his capacity as the acting President, Jonathan embarked on a number of diplomatic shuttles, as part of a deliberate attempt to reassure the world that Nigeria was well and secure despite the internal political challenges especially with the challenges of succession it was going through. Nigeria literally returned to the international arena. One of the shuttles took him to the USA where he met with his American counterpart which enabled the delisting of Nigeria from the discriminatory rule of the Department of Homeland Security on special screening of passengers on international flights to the United States that specifically targeted Nigerians consequent upon the Christmas day attempted bombing a US airline by a Nigerian Abdu Mutallab.
The relationship between Nigeria and US continued to improve under Jonathan. This Alao noted, aimed to establish a mechanism for sustained, bilateral, high-level dialogue to promote and increase diplomatic, economic and security co-operation between the two countries.
These key domestic priorities include good governance, electoral reform and preparations, transparency and anti-corruption, energy electricity supply reform and investment, as well as food and agricultural development, which were all key components of what Jonathan, termed his transformation agenda [ 11 ].
In fact, he engineered a purposeful mobilisation and instrumentalisation of Nigerians in Diaspora for national development. Not only did the administration encourage the formation of the Nigerians in Diaspora Organisation NIDO in all countries where there are Nigerians, it went further to establish a Diaspora Commission to take charge of the affairs of Nigerians in Diasporas and ensure their effective instrumentalisation.
The diplomatic way president Jonathan was able to manage the said Nigeria-South Africa face-off was highly welcomed by Nigerians. He was also quick to order the evacuation of Nigerians trapped in the crisis torn countries like Libya in and Egypt in January In fact Nigeria was the first to airlift her citizens from Egypt. For the first time, there were conscious efforts by Nigeria to ensure that her sacrifices of lives and resources towards restoring peace to many countries in Africa no longer go without commensurate national benefit.
After President Goodluck completed the tenure of former President Umaru Musa Yar-Adua, he Jonathan then contested and won the April presidential election with massive support and expectations among many Nigerians. The president development emphasis was anchored on transformation programme which according to him was to totally transform every decaying sector in Nigeria.
All these factors contributed negatively to the global perception of Nigeria and Nigerians. This according to Obuoforibo was made now during the May 29 inaugural and acceptance speech of the President thus: The new foreign policy lay more emphasis on investment rather than political drive as it is the only avenue to deliver the dividends of democracy to the electorate. The new posture of government is that — while we retain the leadership role in our sub-region, and while we play our leadership role on the continent by taking the lead in all major issues on the continent, the Foreign Policy direction will also be used to propel the economic and industrial development of our country.
They were urged to look for opportunities, ventures, programmes that they could bring to Nigeria to give the new focus a success.
The concern therefore is that even within the sub-region there should be a new thinking on sub-regional integration based on inputs from the people as against past efforts which was the exclusive handwork as well as aspiration of the past leaders.
Indeed, to the best of his abilities, Goodluck Jonathan renewed diplomatic and bilateral relationship with many countries.
He also addressed international gathering to help Nigeria in fighting Bokom Haram terrorist activities and corruption. Internationally, the pervasive corruption in Nigeria had tarnished the image of the country and has resulted in foreign nationals exercising extreme caution in entering into business transactions with Nigerians, thereby weakening the economic sector [ 13 ].
President Goodluck did not actually succeeded in implementing foreign policy as evidenced from USA government refusing to sell weapons to Nigeria, and the South Africa government also sizing Nigeria money meant to purchase weapons to fight Boko Haram among other diplomatic skirmishes globally. Similarly, many Nigerians were executed in countries like Indonesia, Philippines, Australia and unprovoked attacks on Nigerian national and massive deportation of Nigerians across the globe.
Theoretical Framework This study is anchored on the System theory and Pluralist interdependence model. System theory Obi asserted that the system theory came into being in the 's [ 1 ]. Its underlying assumption is that there is order in our system in international relations. It sees nations as being in constant contact in an intricate framework of relationships resulting from the process of interaction.
According to this theory, every nation is involved in some degree of participation in the international environment. A nation's behaviour according to the theory is a two-way activity of taking from and giving to the international environment.
It is this process of exchange that the theory referred to as the international system. The systemic approach views the international system as a result of diverse actions. International relationships are conceived as the consequences of vast number of particular purposes, intentions, expectations and efforts.
According to the theory, since the international system is the result of inter-actions, it is closely connected with the idea of transformation in some form or the other. This is because the interaction of state behaviour is always subject to change under the impact of new factors According to Chandra in Obi there are three major usages followed in this approach [ 1 ].
The first is concerned with description, the second with explanation and the third with analysis of international society. According to Obi, James Rosenau represents the first usage and according to him, a system is considered to exist in an environment and to be composed of parts which through interaction are in relations to each other [ 1 ].
While those who use the term in this sense are interested only in describing the pattern of action among international actors, those who use it as explanation differ from them. Thus system as explanation is different from system as description.
For those who use the term as explanation, the world is divided into a number of national entities possessed of sovereignty but also stress the casual importance of the existence of sovereignty itself. Kenneth Boulding and Charles McClelland are popular exponents of this school. The third usage of the concept is as a tool of analysis and the focus is on arrangement of actors, interaction of actors or recurring patterns of individual behaviour.
Morton Kaplans is one of the most recognised of the systemic school. The article will also focus on international relations commentaries and analyses rather than raw data. General Overviews The vast literature on Nigeria lies outside the scope of this article. However, Osaghae places its foreign policy in a specific historical and social environment with an understated academic approach.
Nigeria MUN Country Profile | IMUNA
This background is partially responsible for the continuity in Nigerian policy as noted in Akindele and Ate and most famously described by Stremlau The long-term continuity is in contrast to the sudden changes of fortune Nigeria has experienced.
Ilifee uses the life of President Obasanjo as a window into Nigeria and the world from the s to In Garba another architect of Nigerian foreign policy provides a first-person account of foreign policy in the s and why pan-Africanism remains an enduring force in Nigerian foreign relations today.
West expands on this theme in a spirited and optimistic defense of the benign side of Nigerian foreign policy. This is in sharp contrast to Sesay and Ukejewhich examines the dramatic weakening of Nigerian foreign policy in the s. World Bank has produced a series of reports on contemporary Nigerian international economic policy.
Nigeria - International Relations - Oxford Bibliographies
Background to and Reflections on the Views from Kuru. Although dated, it is still an excellent history of Nigerian foreign policy and a good argument for the existence of permanent Nigerian interests.
It sets Nigerian foreign policy firmly in the pan-Africanist context. Obasanjo, Nigeria and the World. Indiana University Press, Rich in detail and context, it provides a useful review of earlier thematic treatments of Nigeria.
A Journal of Opinion