Aim: To determine the healthy lifestyle behaviors of students in the nursing and midwifery department and their relationship with health locus of control. Methods: . Therefore, lifestyle reflects our behaviour, attitude, culture and personality. This essay explains the concept of healthy lifestyle and the factors that affect our. some have to do with personal behaviours and lifestyle. .. 6 The target population was defined as First Nations people living relationship to good health.
Among these, a pivotal role was played by smoking habits, physical activity and dietary habits. The main contributions are linked to coronary heart disease and cardiovascular diseases in generaland to cancer, but findings dealing with all-cause mortality are becoming more and more common. The literature is now rich with many contributions that consider either the above behaviours one by one or else combined.
The universal conclusions led to its strong, probably causal, association with the occurrence of lung cancer, and probably other cancer sites, coronary heart disease and other cardiovascular conditions, chronic bronchitis and allied conditions.
The mechanism is complex and somewhat different depending on the disease. The documentation is huge: Cigarette smoking is not a physiological habit and in contrast it has taken an enormous amount of effort to reach some partial results in some countries, but not everywhere.
In some countries, smoking habits are still reported to be on the increase. Many of the early studies were related to working physical activity, but later the approach was radically changed by studying leisure time physical activity, due to the drastic reduction of motion habits related to work occurring mainly in western societies. Present knowledge has led to the conclusion that a certain amount of physical activity is protective against coronary heart disease, perhaps other cardiovascular conditions and other diseases [3,4].
Impact of Lifestyle on Health
There has been much discussion in order to identify the minimum levels of activity that are useful for protection and are also safe. The present orientation is that moderate daily physical activity such as walking or biking min a day has the same protective effects as performing more intense sports activities two or three times a week . It is not completely clear whether physical activity is beneficial for diseases other than cardiovascular ones, but at least for diabetes it seems so.
Benefits have also been documented from the psychological point of view. Physical activity produces its beneficial effects through mechanisms that involve the physiology of the cardiocirculatory system and glucose and lipid metabolism in general, and the coagulation process.
The initial hypothesis was linked to the relationship of saturated fatty acids on serum cholesterol and of serum cholesterol on the occurrence of coronary events. Initial findings based on ecological analyses showed the strong relationship of saturated fat intake with coronary heart disease incidence and mortality across different populations of different cultures . Later, the approach turned to the dietary pattern analysis of food groups , that prompted the identification of the so-called Mediterranean Diet, roughly characterized by a predominance of plant versus animal food intake.
Such a diet seems beneficial against several morbid conditions, including coronary heart disease, cancer and others.
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Certainly, many mechanisms intervene in the process, linked at least to the influence on lipid metabolism, the coagulation process and the antioxidant properties of the Mediterranean Diet.
Subsequently, many other studies, carried out in Mediterranean and non-Mediterranean countries, confirmed that within any population it is possible to identify subgroups of people who follow dietary habits similar to those described as the Mediterranean Diet, and are protected against major morbid conditions and all-cause mortality.
One of the early studies of this type was carried out in Greece . Presently, many other studies tend to refine these concepts and to find a better definition of the ideal diet for health purposes. An additional important point, that is not always focused on the description of the Mediterranean Diet, is the need to reduce the daily consumption of salt .
Presently, in most populations, its use exceeds by two times the physiological needs, favouring the elevation of blood pressure and perhaps the evolution of atherosclerosis. There is indeed increasing evidence for additional blood pressure-independent pathways linking excess salt intake to the process of atherosclerosis, and some meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials have shown that a moderate reduction of salt intake is associated with a reduction of blood pressure and, consequently, with a reduction of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events in hypertensive individuals .
However, the response of patients to these recommendations is heterogeneous, mainly due to variable compliance with the doctor's prescription, and, to a lesser extent, to different individual BP salt sensitivity . There is accordingly, plenty of room to intervene favourably with a potentially high impact for prevention.
Another important point, frequently ignored, is the adverse effect of trans fatty acids that are artificially produced and introduced in prepared foods, although this is a declining trend, at least in some countries .
Labels of food composition must be the guidance for avoiding its use. Hence, they encounter illness, disability and even death. Problems like metabolic diseases, joint and skeletal problems, cardio-vascular diseases, hypertension, overweight, violence and so on, can be caused by an unhealthy lifestyle. The relationship of lifestyle and health should be highly considered.
Today, wide changes have occurred in life of all people. Malnutrition, unhealthy diet, smoking, alcohol consuming, drug abuse, stress and so on, are the presentations of unhealthy life style that they are used as dominant form of lifestyle.
Impact of Lifestyle on Health
Besides, the lives of citizens face with new challenges. For instance, emerging new technologies within IT such as the internet and virtual communication networks, lead our world to a major challenge that threatens the physical and mental health of individuals. The challenge is the overuse and misuse of the technology. Therefore, according to the existing studies, it can be said that: There are different forms of such influences. Consanguinity in some ethnicity is a dominant form of life style that it leads to the genetic disorders.
Reformation of this unhealthy life style is a preventing factor for decreasing the rate of genetic diseases 2. In some countries, the overuse of drugs is a major unhealthy life style. Iran is one of the 20 countries using the most medications. They prefer medication to other intervention. Pain relievers, eye drops and antibiotics have the most usage in Iran.
While self-medications such as antibiotics have a negative effect on the immune system, if the individual would be affected by infection, antibiotics will not be effective in treatment. Overall, 10 percent of those who are self-medicated will experience severe complications such as drug resistance.
The impact of basic lifestyle behaviour on health: how to lower the risk of coro
Sometimes drug allergy is so severe that it can cause death 4. Finally, variables of lifestyle that influence on health can be categorized in some items: Diet is the greatest factor in lifestyle and has a direct and positive relation with health.
Poor diet and its consequences like obesity is the common healthy problem in urban societies. Unhealthy lifestyle can be measured by BMI. Urban lifestyle leads to the nutrition problems like using fast foods and poor foods, increasing problems like cardiovascular 5. For treating general health problems, the exercise is included in life style 6. The continuous exercise along with a healthy diet increases the health. Some studies stress on the relation of active life style with happiness 78.
One of the bases of healthy life is the sleep. Sleep cannot be apart from life.