relationship between mass media and terrorist organizations. This symbiosis has These implications, and the media's proper role in society, will be discussed. Without the media's coverage, the act's impact is arguably wasted, The symbiotic relationship between terrorism and media produces a. Media exposure to terrorism and people's risk perception: The role of not all individuals are equally susceptible to the effects of terror threat.
Law Enforcement and Counter-Terrorist Agencies Law enforcement agencies involved in counter-terrorism and intelligence e. FBI, Special Branch of Scotland Yard, Australian Federal Police Counter-Terrorism need definitions of terrorism as guidelines for their task and legal endorsement for duties which are close to and sometimes over the boundaries of civil liberty. Consequently their definitions have more emphasis on actions and criminality than motivation and psychology so that the investigation of individuals and groups can be justified more on the basis of their activities rather than their presumed motives.
Actual acts of terrorist violence are emphasised above the threats of the violence. These definitions can have significant social and political implications. They can benefit society by empowering effective counter-terrorism measures. They can harm society if they allow measures that cross the boundaries of civil liberties. Governments and Political Parties There are two reasons why politicians or governments will place importance on the definition of terrorism.
An example is President George W. A side benefit for governments is the opportunity to introduce laws that are more repressive than is usually the case. The laws may be directed to terrorism but frequently are sufficiently extensive or intrusive to increase government power generally.
Citizens are more accepting of the loss of individual civil rights in the name of counter-terrorism. Government abuse is an over-reaction to terrorism and can be followed by a backlash by citizens. Truthful definitions of terrorism by politicians can help reassure and educate the public and preserve their civil rights. Secondly, governments and politicians can use definitions of terrorism to repress, victimise or demonise their opponents, civilians, political bodies and religions.
Misuse of the definition of terrorism can have far-reaching social and political consequences. Political parties and religions can be outlawed and persecuted. An individual who is convincingly defined as a terrorist loses many civil rights. If they happen to reside in certain areas of Afghanistan or Pakistan, they are at risk of being killed by a drone. They prefer terms such as freedom fighter, guerrilla, insurgent and revolutionary. Terrifying an innocent person….
Whereas terrorising oppressors and criminals and thieves and robbers is necessary for the safety of people and protection of their property…. The terrorism we practise is of the commendable kind for it is directed at the tyrants and the aggressors and the enemies of Allah, the tyrants, the traitors who commit acts of treason against their own countries and their own faith and their own prophet and their own nation.Terrorism and the Media
Terrorising those and punishing them are necessary measures to straighten things and to make them right. Terrorism will exist indefinitely because there will always be individuals and groups that get reassurance and motivation from this type of self-justification. The media plays a critical role in producing the illusion that terrorism is an existential threat to the security of Western countries.
There is a difference between security and existential threats. In many developing countries, the systematic effects of terrorism are real- e.
Media and terrorism
The existence of actors with the capacity for violence other than the state is always a threat to state legitimacy and, under certain conditions, can precipitate civil conflict. However, the current terrorism threat posed to Western countries represents a security threat, not an existential threat.
It is because of the availability bias that perceptions of risk may be in error.
Second, it describes the hyper connectivity between people, places, and ideas. It also depoliticises the threat, making it seem random or evil. Consequently, terrorism becomes code word for mystery and uncontrollable threat. The surfeit media coverage of terrorism in Western countries can be contrasted with the dearth treatment of terrorism in other parts of the world where the bulk of terrorism actually happens.
Nigeria, Syria, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iraq, but even these numbers are deceptive. The rise of terrorism since is not a sign of how dangerous the world has become, but in fact the opposite. The copycat effect is the tendency of sensational publicity about violent murders or suicides to result in more of the same through imitation.
They successfully diverted the plane, carrying thirty-two passengers and ten crew members to Algiers. This spectacular form of terrorism, designed to get global attention, would become a regular occurrence in subsequent years.
Significant for the security services, copy-cat attacks have the tendency to produce the phenomenon of waves: This copy-cat trend is currently manifested through the use of cars, trucks, vans and cleavers in the execution of terrorist acts.
Definition of Terrorism – Social and Political Effects
These low sophisticated attacks have made it very difficult for the security apparatus to respond effectively, both in terms of prevention and detection. Broadcasting these attacks communicates a powerful signal to prospective lone actors and would-be terrorists: An unexpected consequence of the media coverage of low-tech attacks is that it has lowered the bar for entry into terrorism.
Copy-cat terrorism provides terrorists, particularly lone actors, with the fame that they seek.
Similar to celebrities, lone actor terrorists desire to become somebody- which they believe is attainable through terrorism. Around the Bataclan, Paris, November On its side, the mass media capitalizes from the confusion and consternation caused by terrorist attacks to produce the kind of dramatic news that draws the attention of its viewers and readers.
As for extremists, they carefully calculate the scale, target, location, and timing of their assaults to stir ample media attention—or in other words, to generate advertisements for their messages on a global scale. The broader and more prolonged the media coverage of terrorism turns out to be, the greater the terrorists' feelings of accomplishment, influence, and power.
As mentioned above, terrorists know all too well that the newsworthiness of their strikes is directly related to the site chosen, the number of casualties inflicted, and the type of act.
Although these channels are proving useful for recruitment, the individuals who follow them tend to be already inclined to support the extremists' ideals and goals and do not trust the Western media in any case, which they see as the enemy.
Therefore, no matter how technologically savvy terrorists may become in the future, in order to reach a mass global audience it will always be crucial for them to obtain the mass coverage provided by global news channels. The amount, focus, and tone of news coverage of terrorism can help stir the kind of public outrage that influences governments' responses to attacks.
This is a long way off from the advice given by the British Indian novelist Salman Rushdie, who is himself a target of religious extremism inthe Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini issued a fatwa calling for his assassination for blasphemy: In his book Inside Terrorism, Bruce Hoffman pointed out that this coincided with a series of technological innovations that made it possible to send images cheaply and rapidly across great distances.
Today the emergence of an array of new digital platforms has turned media competition into a fierce contest to capture people's shortening attention spans. This has led to hyper-sensationalization in the way terrorist activity is reported, a tendency perhaps most apparent in television, still the general public's main source of information.
TV has always had a love affair with drama and violence. The Easy Route of Sensationalism The ruthless nature of the news business can also be seen in the media coverage after the shocking first days of a terrorist attack.
Once the novelty of the strike wears off, news organizations race to be the first to broadcast or publish so-far undisclosed details of the police investigation.
To pick just two examples: