Gender and development - Wikipedia
Key Issues on Gender and Development page is a quick introduction to gender- related Increasingly, the need to examine notions of “masculinities” is also part of an Women represent between one-tenth to one-third of all combatants in. This approach to analysing gender relations does not negate the fact that Much development policy has been based on what is termed the "ideal . However, the GDI takes into account the inequality between women and. Introduction: Gender and development: Bridging policy and practice. Pamela Thomas .. in achieving gender mainstreaming and gender equality is discussed .. required to achieve the goal, and the relationship between women and the.
This policy aims to address policy and institutional constraints that maintain disparities between the genders and thus limit the effectiveness of development programs.
Gender mainstreaming mandated by the Beijing Platform for action integrates gender in all aspects of individuals lives in regards to policy development on gender equality. An argument made on the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development EBRD is that it creates a neoliberal dominance that continues the construction and reconstruction of gender norms by homogenously category women rather than the gender disparities within its policies.
Outsourcing is when companies from the western world moves some of their business to another country.
The reasons these companies make the decision to move is often because of cheap labor costs. The reason it is related to gender is because women are mainly the people that are being hired for these cheap labor jobs and why they are being hired. In China the main people who work in these factories are women, these women move from their home towns to cities far away for the factory jobs.
The reasons these women move is to be able to make a wage to take care of not only themselves but their families as well. Often times these women are expected to get these jobs. Women in countries and areas that may not have been able to work and make their own income now have the opportunity to provide for themselves and their kids. The reason for it being a threat is because without jobs and their own income women may fall victim to discrimination or abuse.
Gender and development
Many times factory owners discuss how many women want the jobs they have to offer. Although some women have acquired a job the work conditions may not be safe or ideal. This leads to the idea of women being disposable at the workplace.
They also are not able to expect safe working conditions in their work environments. The hours are long and because they are not home they typically also move into dormitories and live at their jobs. Gender and microfinance[ edit ] Women have been identified by some development institutions as a key to successful development, for example through financial inclusion. Microcredit is giving small loans to people in poverty without collateral. The research showed that the microfinance policies were not being carried out in the most efficient ways due to exploitation.
Chapter WOMEN, GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT
If was found that MFIs force borrowers to repay before the harvesting season starts and in some cases endure the struggles of sharecropping work that is funded by the loan. In Bangladesh, another outcome seen for some of the Grameen recipients was that they faced domestic abuse as a result of their husbands feeling threatened about women bringing in more income.
Though many women were not able to pay back their loans, many were still eager to take on debt because their microfinance participation created a platform to address other inequities within the community.
Therefore, the critique is that the assumption of economic development through microfinance does not take into account all possible outcomes, especially the ones affecting women. The impact of programs of the Bretton Woods Institutions and other similar organizations on gender are being monitored by Gender Action, a watchdog group founded in by Elaine Zuckerman who is a former World Bank economist. One view is that the crisis has affected women disproportionately and that there is a need for alternative economic structures in which investment in social reproduction needs to be given more weight.
Examples for these sectors are the service sector or wholesale retail trade. In the post-war era, feminist scholars such as Elizabeth Wilson  criticized state capitalism and the welfare state as a tool to oppress women.
Therefore, neoliberal economic policies featuring privatization and deregulationhence a reduction of the influence of the state and more individual freedom was argued to improve conditions for women. This anti-welfare state thinking arguably led to feminist support for neoliberal ideas embarking on a macroeconomic policy level deregulation and a reduced role of the state.
Chapter 21: WOMEN, GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT
Therefore, some scholars in the field argue that feminismespecially during its second wavehas contributed key ideas to Neoliberalism that, according to these authors, creates new forms of inequality and exploitation.
Its approach identifies women are relatively underinvested source of development and it defines gender equality an opportunity of higher return investment. The thinking behind smart economics dates back, at least, to the lost decade of the Structural Adjustment Policies SAPs in the s. For example, the Bank turned to researches of Whitehead that evidenced a greater female-control of household income is associated with better outcomes for children's welfare  and Jeffery and Jeffery who analyzed the positive correlation between female education and lower fertility rates.
Gender Equality and Development. The then-president of the World Bank Robert B.
Investing in them is not only fair, it is a smart economic move. For instance the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women CEDAW in which generally describes the several agendas for national actions to end discrimination against women whether be at home or at workplaces United Nations The introduction of policies, procedures and guidelines concerning gender equality has improved the rights and statuses of women.Gender and Development - Anne Marie Goetz
Hence the gender gap has been decreasing each year due to effective development processes which integrates women, empower them and give them access to join leadership positions in both the economic and political sphere.
This piece of writing aims to examine how the development processes reinforces gender equality in terms of the decreasing feminization of poverty, the inclusion of women in the development processes and the differences within symbolic dimensions of gender since gender is particularly referred as the socially constructed roles, behaviours and characteristics that a certain society regard as appropriate for women and men WHO The differences within the symbolic dimensions When raising the issues of gender inequality or gender equality, one needs to identify the differences within the symbolic dimensions.
In this essay, the symbolic dimension which will be discussed is the gender differences. The differences in gender are mainly differed by the socially constructed roles, behaviours and characteristics that a certain society consider as appropriate for women and men. Individuals learn the social characteristics that are associated with maleness or femaleness during the socialization processes.
The learned roles and behaviours that are related with being female or male tend to vary from one culture to the other. For instance, the men in the Maasai culture of northern Tanzania stay in woods and are raised to be warriors from an early age whereas women practice the roles of being good housewives and mothers at an early age so as they can get married once they reach puberty and reproduce to increase the population growth of the Maasai society Finke One may agree that this is how men and women should be socialized because men have certain attributes that women cannot portray.
However, the world has become more globalised.