free essay on The Relationship Between Data And Information
Think of the data that is created when you buy a product from a retailer. the difference between data and information, explain the role that information plays in. Help with understanding the differences between data and information on a computer with examples on both data and information. In, essence, data is raw. It has not been shaped, processed or interpreted. It is a series of 1's and zeros that humans would not be able to read.
Our knowledge was limited by our direct experiences. Information Information allows us to expand our knowledge beyond the range of our senses. We can capture data in information, then move it about so that other people can access it at different times. Here is a simple analogy for you. If I take a picture of you, the photograph is information.
But what you look like is data. I can move the photo of you around, send it to other people via e-mail etc. So, in the case of the lost tax records, the CDs were information. Mrs Jones still lives at 14 Whitewater road, and she was still born on 15th August The Infogineering Model below explains how these interact… Why does it matter that people mix them up?
When people confuse data with information, they can make critical mistakes. Information captures data at a single point. The data changes over time. By understanding the differences between these, you can better understand how to make better decisions based on the accurate facts.
Facts, a description of the World Information: Captured Data and Knowledge Knowledge: Nonaka and Takeuchi attribute the success of acknowledged the need to bridge the experience gap between Japanese companies to organisational knowledge management novice and experienced designers [Moore, ]. The research [Nonaka, ]. Knowledge management has received aims to identify the support a novice designer requires to gain increasing attention in recent years.
Research into the capture, experience faster. The focus of this paper is to present some storage and presentation of knowledge has focused upon how initial results of a study of novice and experienced designers. A large This initial study highlighted the difficulty in establishing amount of literature is available on implementation of consistent and precise usage for the terms data, information and knowledge-based systems, but less is available on capturing as knowledge.
It is concluded that data, information and part of the design process for a review of design knowledge knowledge are relative concepts that cannot be defined in capture see Jensen, Tomiyama argues that identifying absolute terms. As relative concepts, these help differentiate what to capture has been overlooked [Tomiyama, ]. This is experts and novices, and different types of novices.
The the focus of this research. This paper describes a preliminary descriptive study of experienced and novice designers. In carrying out this 1. Hence this distinction is novice designer with appropriate knowledge to provide him or discussed later in the paper.
In terms of the knowledge used, a design produced with the support of such a system would not be 1. The system would contain the and novices has focused on problems where constraints and appropriate knowledge currently possessed by experienced context are well defined, and a limited number of rules apply. This knowledge needs to be identified, captured, Examples are chess and domain problems such as mechanics stored and made available to novice designers.
This research is problems. Chase and Simon found the ability to recall investigating how far this scenario can be realised.
The Relationship Between Data And Information
The capacity of short-term memory is limited by the Cross et al describe the limitations in drawing too many number of chunks. Miller states short-term memory capacity is defined, e.
More experienced such as computer programming which deals with ill-defined chess players can hold a complete chess configuration as one problems. Design problems are described as ill-defined.
What is the relationship between data and information? - ProProfs
One of chunk of information. Less experienced chess players hold the reasons for this is that many possible solutions exist much smaller amounts of information in each chunk, requiring [Goldschmidt,Cross, ].
In addition, not all of the too many chunks to hold in memory [Newell, ]. Similar characteristics of the situation can be found in the problem findings were found in solving domain problems [see Blessing, statement [Blessing, ]. The study described in this paper for an overview].
Waldron et al observed the abilities of found some of the differences between novices and experts in experts, semi-experts graduate designers and naive designers relatively well-defined problem areas were also applicable in to reproduce mechanical engineering drawings [Waldron, the ill-defined area of design.
This confirms the suggestions ]. They observed that experts made fewer errors; required made by Blessing [Blessing ]. The ability to draw for longer before 2. To achieve this, the differences between memory. Experts were also found to be more successful at experienced and novice designers need to be better understood. De Groot observed experienced chess players to plan several moves ahead, 2. The carrying out design tasks. The experienced designers had difference in the ability to find and selectively explore the most between 8 and 32 years of experience and the novice designers promising moves suggests a difference in the internal between 8 and 30 months.
They were from two different representation of knowledge [Ericsson, ]. In the domains groups within the aerospace company. An backwards, unlike experts who reasoned forwards. This example of the tasks observed was the design of a second-stage suggests experts access their knowledge systematically [De high-pressure compressor blade. A 15 - 20 minute interview Jong,Ericsson, and Zeitz, ].
When solving followed each observation. The problem space is used to environments. The designers were observed individually and achieve the goal state of the problem and consists of were asked to think aloud. Problem space is thought to cognitive processing if subjects were asked to simply verbalise increase with expertise [Christiaans, ]. They were only prompted to speak during periods of silence. The implications of this are: However, the use of a single design task for all subjects might have resulted in a task that was too easy for no occurrences observed.
Categories related to the design process are discussed in expertise; or too difficult for a novice designer. The All the observations and interviews were audio recorded designers would generate a decision and then immediately and transcribed, resulting in 51 pages of transcripts.
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No implement this decision. The results of the implementation categorisation of data was determined prior to the observations. If rejected, the process was repeated.
This summarise the designers thoughts and actions. Categories were process of trial and error was observed many times with novice created to summarise all these thoughts and actions. A few designers and only once with experienced designers. Smith and additional categories were required in the analysis of later Leong found a similar difference in their observations of transcripts to accommodate all the data.
The final transcripts students novices and professional engineers [Smith, ]. This may explain the need to Twenty-one categories of thoughts and actions were generated implement a decision before evaluating to determine if this from the analysis of the observations.
They were also observed undertaking tasks to gain a better understanding of the problem. Occurrences of Thoughts and Actions number of occurrences observed: Experienced designers were aware of the experienced of the novice designers with two and a half years reasons behind a particular component or a specific experience.
He was occasionally observed considering issues, manufacturing process that was used in a particular design.
This They assessed the reasons and their applicability to the typical behaviour of experienced designers. If the component or process was not necessary and leaving it out would help solve the problem at hand, the component or process would be removed or modified. This illustrates how the boundaries of the Generate Implement Evaluate problem solution space could be expanded. A specific example was the use of a cold expansion process, which caused difficulty in manufacturing.
The designer was aware of the stress conditions that required this additional manufacturing process, and was confident that Reject these conditions would not occur. He therefore decided that this process was no longer required. Designers often referred to past Experienced designers were observed to adopt a different projects when deciding to modify or remove a process or pattern. They generated decisions and then evaluated the component, as described above. They would also refer to consequences before their implementation.
If this first past projects to ensure consistency. A specific example evaluation indicated that the implementation of the decision was ensuring notes on drawings were consistent between was not feasible, it would be rejected there and then.
This question was asked in would the decision be implemented and then re-evaluated. For example, the experienced designers would question whether reducing the weight of a Generate Evaluate Implement Evaluate component is worth pursuing, if only a small reduction was feasible.
Experienced designers questioned data provided to them. For example, how models were loaded was questioned before accepting the results of stress analysis. The experienced designers would reject an option, if it unnecessarily limited later options in Figure 2.
However, they kept rejected options in the back of their minds in case they needed them later. Experienced designers were aware process of trial and error. Experienced designers also carried that many decisions are based upon compromises. For out a number of activities that the novice designers did not. Their awareness of issues and how they related led to trade-offs.
Experienced designers considered the effects of implementing a decision on manufacturing, assembly, maintenance, etc. They would reject a decision, 3.