Stamp Act Congress | mephistolessiveur.info
The Stamp Act was passed on March 22, , leading to an uproar in the colonies The colonists, who had convened the Stamp Act Congress in October War, signaling the end of years of colonial French rule in Algeria. designated Operation Breakfast–at a meeting of the National read more. The Stamp Act of was the first internal tax levied directly on American documents in the colonies, came at a time when the British Empire was deep in speech, delivered before a meeting of Virginia's colonial leaders in in an Parliament pushed forward with the Stamp Act in spite of the colonists' objections. The Stamp Act Congress, or First Congress of the American Colonies, was a meeting held . When word of the pending congress reached London, the Lords of Trade were so disturbed that they wrote to the king that "this is a matter of the.
Colonists resented taxation without representation in Parliament The colonists, however, uniformly resented the Stamp Act and its assumption that Parliament could tax them without their direct representation in Parliament.
Stamp Act - HISTORY
The colonists taxed themselves through their own local assemblies, and they resisted the limitation on their self-rule. A young Patrick Henry led the debate, at one point declaring: The fifth resolution, which was adopted and then rescinded, declared that colonies held the power of taxation.Taxes & Smuggling - Prelude to Revolution: Crash Course US History #6
The sixth and seventh proposals, neither of which passed, declared that the people of the colony did not need to obey any tax law not passed by the Assembly and that anyone who upheld the authority of Parliament should be branded an enemy of Virginia. Although the more radical Stamp Act Resolves were never passed, they were widely published throughout the colonies. By the end ofeight other colonial legislatures had also objected to British taxation.
Violence erupts in reaction to Stamp Act Violent reactions to the Stamp Act began to occur throughout the colonies. A mob in Boston hung the stamp distributor in effigy, then beheaded the effigy and "stamped" it to pieces before shattering the windows of his home, destroying his furniture, and tearing out the paneling. The stamp distributor in Newport, Rhode Island, also lost his home, and one in Maryland was so upset upon seeing his store pulled down that he rode off in panic. His slaves led a procession, which carried effigies of George Mercer, Virginia's stamp distributor.
The effigies were hanged at the end of the day, then hanged again the next day and burned after Lee read a satirical "dying speech of George Mercer. Like the stamp distributors in other colonies who faced such mobs, Mercer resigned the next day. There, the colonists agreed on the general principle that Parliament lacked authority to levy taxes on the colonies and to deny individuals a jury trial.
Virginia was unable to elect a representative to this Congress, as Governor Fauquier had dissolved the Assembly on June 1.
Parliament revoked Stamp Act in The colonists' resistance to the Stamp Act was successful, and the measure became increasingly unenforceable. In March of Parliament revoked the Stamp Act, although not before it had reasserted that Parliament had complete legislative authority over the colonies.
Parliament repeals the Stamp Act - HISTORY
Lieutenant Governor Colden, unable to prevent the meeting, called it an "illegal convention", noting that "[w]hatever possible pretences may be used for this meeting their real intentions may be dangerous. New York delegate Robert R. Livingston wrote that the Congress was designed to insure the unity of the British empire, for "if I really wished to see America in a state of independence, I should desire as one of the most effectual means to that end that the stamp act should be inforced.
The official congressional journal, in an apparently deliberate move, only contains the barest details of official actions, and none of the participants kept private journals.
History.org: The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation's Official History and Citizenship Website
As a result, accounts of the congress are based on fragmentary records from contemporary letters and publications. They also debated on how voting in the body should take place, eventually agreeing that each delegation would cast a single vote. The early substantive debates centered around issues raised by the Stamp Act and the earlier Sugar Act. The delegates spent a significant amount of time discussing the differences between direct "internal" taxation and the regulation of trade or "external taxation"and seeking formal justification of the idea that only the colonial assemblies had the right to levy internal taxes.
According to Delaware delegate Caesar Rodneythe drafting of this statement was made difficult by the desire to balance the colonists' rights with the royal prerogative and the acknowledged powers of Parliament. Separate committees worked over the next few days to draft these, which were accepted after debate and revision by the delegates on October 22 and When the issue of signing these documents was discussed on October 24, matters suddenly became more complicated.
The costs of fighting the French and Indian War — had left Great Britain burdened with an immense debt.
British officials believed that the American colonists, who had benefited from the war by the expulsion of the French from Canada, and who were being protected from their Native American neighbors by British troops, should pay part of the expenses. The first measure designed to increase revenues from the colonies, the Sugar Act ofimposed import duties on foreign molasses while tightening enforcement of customs laws to reduce smuggling.
Although many Americans disliked the Sugar Act, opposition was limited because the colonists accepted the British government's right to impose trade duties. But the next colonial revenue law, the Stamp Actprovoked fierce opposition.
The Stamp Act, passed in February and modeled on a tax already collected in Britain, required colonists to pay a small fee for newspapers, diplomas, wills, and other items. Unlike customs duties, which the colonists considered external taxes levied throughout the British Empirethe Stamp Act was an internal tax, to be levied within the colonies themselves. Americans believed that only their own elected legislatures could impose internal taxes. By stepping beyond what Americans considered its legal limits, the British government's actions aroused fears that colonial liberties were in danger.
Most colonists believed that corrupt government officials might next attempt to deprive the people of their rights and property, and that the first step in such a conspiracy would be un-just taxation. Frightened by the possibility that the Stamp Act was part of such a plan, angry colonists protested in a variety of ways.