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Most of the banks on the list are tiny community lenders, largely in the Southeast and Midwest, that would be more attractive if they were bundled together rather than sold as stand-alone entities. Ross, a prominent bank investor. Ed Clark, president and chief executive of TD Bank Financial said the company has its own credit card product. You need a management team. We are a local bank.
Investing in our communities is a core principle for us, and we do that in every market that we operate. I see no reason why we would not do that in South Carolina. The merger needs approval of South Financial shareholders and various regulators. The government agreed to discharge all accrued but unpaid dividends on that stock, TD officials said.
The sale of South Financial to TD alters the financial landscape in Greenville, removing an important local headquarters and raising a level of apprehension about what comes next.
According to data from the Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. In the state, Carolina First had the fourth-highest market share in terms of deposits, with 7. South Financial also owns Mercantile Bank in Florida. The pressure on South Financial has been steadily growing and crested recently with a consent order with the federal government that required the bank to raise more capital and unload troubled assets.
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Lynn Harton, took the reins of the bank last year and Masrani said he has asked them to stay. There might be some troubled banks with lots of loan problems but there is nothing wrong with the deposits. Masrani said there is some overlap in the footprints acquired in April and May but the bank has not sorted out how it will proceed in terms of possibly consolidating.
Masrani also said he liked the more than branches it obtained from South Financial in the Carolinas. The Southeast region has numerous troubled banks that more cash-rich banks like TD might be able to pick up on the cheap.
It particularly could connect its geographic dots from the Carolinas to Florida by entering the Georgia market, which has been ravaged by bank failures. TD has locations from Maine to Washington but there was a space on the eastern seaboard between Washington and Florida before the South Financial deal gave it sites in the Carolinas. Masrani said while the bank is always exploring opportunities, it might be more inclined to take some time to digest its latest acquisitions.
The attack on the branch in an upscale neighbourhood was captured on video, and was later posted on the web along with a message that targets the Royal Bank. Ottawa Constable Jean-Paul Vincelette confirmed that the bank attack was arson. Meanwhile, the banks have spent recent months making their own contingency plans lest they land in the crosshairs of protesters.
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Bank officials have been meeting with the police and landlords of the downtown buildings to map out security strategies. Those include having bank staff work from home or other branches during the summit, increasing security and even closing down. A1 After years of dithering by various federal governments, sources say the Conservatives will unveil the long-awaited national securities watchdog next week, along with a new heavy-handed copyright law set to affect Canadians on their iPods and personal video recorders.
The twin moves are timed so Stephen Harper can align Canada with the common national securities and copyright laws of other members in the G8, a ramp-up to the global group hug in Huntsville and Toronto next month. But when Alberta and Quebec are equally miffed by the same piece of federal government legislation, it will be a major migraine for a consensus-seeking Prime Minister.
Agreement on this issue has become officially impossible. Alberta and Quebec are seething mad at what they perceive as a federal invasion of provincial jurisdiction.
Alberta suspects the freewheeling entrepreneurial nature of its junior energy companies might not fit with staid Bay Street rule-making. Quebec thinks its homegrown enterprise will have trouble meshing with the rest of Canada, fretting the clout it has accumulated with Montreal as master of its securities domain will suffer if the watchdog is chained to Toronto.
But the sleepy sound of the common securities regulator masks the enormous benefits it will unleash as Canada imposes a standard set of rules and regulations to flatten boundaries, eliminating 13 provincial and territorial obstacles to the flow of pan-Canadian business.
The cost savings could be substantial if business only has to meet a single set of securities regulations, a move whose time is so long overdue in the view of Finance Minister Jim Flaherty that he believes this could be his signature accomplishment.
Imposing a common securities regulator over the objections of heavyweight provinces has been a talking point going back two Liberal governments, but the legislative debate has never hit the floor of the House of Commons. The pushback against the notion of a common securities regulator has been so furious, Mr.
Despite all the interprovincial noise on the securities side, the copyright law will likely have the greater impact on average Canadians as they increasingly rely on downloaded entertainment. All signals suggest Heritage Minister James Moore has triumphed over the objections of Industry Minister Tony Clement, setting up Canada to march in excessively protected lockstep with a United States that boasts the toughest laws against pirated music or movies on the planet. If this comes to pass, the federal government will be headed for a very bad week when the House of Commons reconvenes on Tuesday.
Day said in Beijing Wednesday. Europe and the United States support the idea, hoping to extract some of the government money that banks were given to avoidcollapse during the financial meltdown in and Manley is also on the board of Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce.
While he strongly opposes the tax, he also noted that Canada could riskalienating other countries if there is broad consensus in favour of the tax. Manley said in an interview. While the United States will be an important financial centre no matter what, Canada would probably attract some financial business from its southern neighbour if the U.
The government of Prime Minister Stephen Harper believes that Canadian banks should not be punished because they were not to blame for the financial crisis, nor did they need government bailouts to stay afloat, unlike many U.
Chinese banks are in a similar situation to Canadian banks, Mr. Day said, and Mr. But naturally it makes the least sense for Canada, where the taxpayer was never called upon to support a bank. Day told reporters after a speech this week in China. The debate has become a mainstay of the international financial press, and with each outcry against the idea of bank levy, Mr.
Through a series of phone calls with one another and one-on-one meetings with Mr. The level of concentration of organic matter OM depends on the depositional environment upwelling currents, reducing medium, etc. For the most part, hydrocarbon generation took place in two stages: Geology The Hassi Messaoud region is located in the central part of the Algerian Sahara and is known for its oil-producing wells, mainly from the Cambrian reservoirs. The Hassi Messaoud super-giant field is a dome covering an area of almost 1, km2 Fig.Meet the Medic
The Cambrian deposits, which are represented by sandstones and quartzites, are the best known and form the major reservoirs Cambrian Ri and Ra. The Ordovician reservoir Hamra quartziteswhich has been eroded under the Hercynian unconformity and forms the Hassi Messaoud ring, is an oil play with very high potential.
Cross section of the Hassi Messaoud oil field area. From the point of view of surface area and closure, the Ordovician Hamra quartzites has shown impregnated columns of more than m and surface areas of more than km2 HTF-HDZ zone. The ring shape of the Ordovician reservoir makes it of great interest. The Ri unit forms the transition between the coarse facies of the Ra zone and the pelitic sandstone of the overlying alternating zone.
The top of the Ri reservoir is a shallow transgressive marine sandstone. It comprises a well-sorted fine to medium clean sandstone with abundant bioturbation Scolithus. Its thickness is variable and could be unconformable with reservoir Ra. The Cambrian is represented by a set of sandstone sediments divided into two members—a lower and an upper.
Thickness is on the order of m. The lower member, Ra anisotropicis represented by fine to coarse gray-white sandstones and by compact, indurated light-gray conglomerates, which are ferruginous in places. The upper member, known as Ri isotropicis represented by pinkish gray sandstones of quartzite composition with a siliceous cement.
Stylolitic joints and fracturing are present. The Cambrian reservoirs Ri and Ra appear to be appreciably different. The sandstone bodies and silts of reservoir Ra are discontinuous and of small lateral extent, unlike sandstone Ri, which shows better continuity.
This variability is directly related to the heterogeneous nature of the Cambrian sandstones. The characteristics of each member depend on their lithology, clay content, and diagenetic history.
Core studies have shown that the top and median parts of reservoir Ri are generally poor, whereas at drain D5 corresponding to the basal part, it is more promising with very useful hydrocarbon production in the southern HGA and western OL parts.
Paleozoic section of the Hassi Messaoud oil field area. In the western and eastern parts of the Messaoud dome, the Taconian unconformity takes the form of erosion resulting mostly from glacial planing. The unit from the Tremadocian to the Caradocian—that is, all the lower Ordovician—comprises two transgressive-regressive cycles: Lithology This m thick formation is often described as massive and compact.
It is composed of fine to medium, locally coarse, compact hard silico-quartzite to quartzite, white to gray-white sandstone with episodes of black, silty, laminated clay. Analysis of the lithofacies in cored levels in the Hamra quartzites has demonstrated the existence of different lithofacies: The existence of ichnofacies associated with the presence of Scolithus, which are sometimes abundant to very abundant, are characteristic of an upper shoreface, marine-type environment.
Hamra quartzites reservoir In the Ordovician reservoir, the thickest section is that of the Hamra quartzites with numerous proven oil-producing locations around the Hassi Massaoud. Petrophysical results from Hamra quartzites reservoir. Petrophysical results from the Cambrian reservoir. Some elements, such as radioactive elements, may be concentrated in the fault system. Analysis of diagraph data in the Hassi Terfa field has shown concentrations of radioactive elements Th, K, and U and suggests a relationship between these elements and fracturing.
In addition to the problems of lateral discontinuity in sandstone bodies, there are problems with compaction directly related to diagenetic phenomena and other factors such as dissolution and weathering of the minerals. Sedimentology The continental sequences of the Middle Triassic were the first to be deposited on the Hercynian unconformity. The sedimentary sequence is marked by a major evaporitic formation extending from the Triassic terminal to the Dogger and by volcano-detritic and lagoonal deposits.
The Triassic basin occupies an extensive depression more thankm2the filling of which gave rise to a great variety of facies, depending upon the location of the sedimentation and distance from sources of input.
The deposits are generally continental fluviatile at the base of the sequence and become increasingly more evaporitic toward the top. Structural traps in the Middle Triassic are anticlinal folds formed during various tectonic phases as a result of fracturing tectonics, or are bounded on their flanks by major faults forming part of the very complex system of the Amguid—Hassi Messaoud High Figs. Baetyls in situ at Tan Khadidja, dating from the end of the Neolithic period and the start of Proto-history near BC.
These upright dressed stones served a cultural function and are assumed to represent human beings who are perhaps pointing toward an ancestor cult. Characteristic schemes of the different types of traps. Stratigraphic traps relate to the sandstone bodies that have been closed off by lateral wedging Fig. Seal The Amguid—Hassi Messaoud uplift includes several levels of rock seal that vary in age and facies. The El Gassi clays cover the Cambrian reservoirs and are distributed over the entire Saharan platform.
The Azzel clays provide a seal for the Hamra quartzites reservoir in the Ordovician. The best seals consist of the clay-evaporite deposits of the Triassic and Liassic. The Berkine subbasin is a vast Paleozoic depression in which the basement is located at more than 6, m in depth. Its central part was barely affected by Hercynian erosion, and the terminal Carboniferous series is preserved. On the structural rises toward the periphery of the basin, the Paleozoic series is successively affected by Hercynian erosion.
The perimeters of the basin as such are marked by the development of Silurian-Devonian beneath the Mesozoic. To the west this depression is bounded by the structural axes of the Rhourde En Nouss and to the south by the old Ahara—El Ouar uplift, with an E-W orientation separating it from the Illizi basin.
Major subsidence affected the Berkine basin in the course of its evolution so that it shows the most complete sedimentary sequence more than 6, mwith three cycles of sedimentation: Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic Fig. Petroleum system Source rocks Two main source rocks recognized in the Berkine basin correspond to development of black clays rich in organic matter of marine origin marking the onset of the period of transgression in the Silurian and Frasnian.
Their extent within the basin depends on the degree of erosion during the Hercynian phase. Berkine Basin The intracratonic Berkine basin is located in the northeastern part of the Saharan platform. It has an overall surface area ofkm2 and is one of the most important hydrocarbon-producing basins Fig. The basin is divided into three oil-bearing areas: Southeast Triassic depression This depression superimposes on the existing salt-bearing trough of Dorbane and its extensions to the southwest.
This region constitutes a buffer zone between the Amguid—Hassi Messaoud uplift to the west and the Berkine basin to the east. These fields are mainly associated with Triassic reservoirs and the Hamra quartzites. These oil, gas, and condensate fields are associated with structures of large amplitude generally bounded by reverse fault systems of great throw. Dahar depression This depression is a vast Mesozoic monocline dipping NE and superimposed on the Dahar structural high, which constitutes the western extension of the Tunisian Djeffara arch.
It is bounded to the north by the Melrhir Trough and forms the northern boundary of the Berkine basin. This axis has received little exploration because of the limited development of the Triassic and Ordovician reservoirs and, more importantly, because of risks associated with maturation and the boundaries of the Silurian source rock.
The Triassic sequence is superimposed on the ancient Silurian to Cambro-Ordovician series. Structural elements of the Berkine basin. El Khrouf Berkine E. Stratigraphic column of the Berkine basin. Carboniferous reservoirs Of Strunian to Visean age, Carboniferous reservoirs occur in the form of sandstone intervals within clay-sandstone sequences associated with a shallow marine depositional environment.
The basal Carboniferous has an extent limited to the central part and western edges of the Berkine basin. The trend of the sandstone facies of a proximal type indicates the predominant role of the ancient relief of the Amguid-Messaoud and Dahar, which served as the major source for material.
The Strunian-Carboniferous reservoirs have mean thicknesses on the order of 20 to 50 m with excellent petrophysical characteristics. Lower Devonian The Lower Devonian reservoirs are represented by two essential sequences of the Gedinnian, dominated by a series of massive sandstones of fluviatile type post-Caledonian of mean thickness on the order of m, and the transgressive Siegenian, which has reservoirs in interbedded sandstones corresponding to the offshore bar and deltaic type.
The distribution of facies in the Lower Devonian is also marked by the influence of the major relief of AmguidMessaoud and detritics entering the Berkine basin from the southeast. The Silurian source rock, of regional extent, is the main generator of hydrocarbons in the region Fig.
The Frasnian source rock has a more limited extension and is mostly found in the central part of the basin. It corresponds to a terminal sandstone episode of the post-rift Triassic. With a mean thickness of to m, it consists of sequences of fluviatile and deltaic channels in which medium to coarse grain predominates, denoting a nearby source of material. This series wedges out to the southeast on the Maouar High and disappears to the west against the Ramade fault and the El Biod uplift.
Toward the north it becomes progressively clayey and then salt bearing the equivalent of S4. Triassic limestone—Intermediate Triassic The Triassic limestone—Intermediate Triassic was formed during a period of rifting. It consists of generally dolomitic clay facies and sandstone sequences of the Intermediate, which are well developed in the southeast Triassic depression. Thicknesses vary and are influenced by the presumed stretching of major faults. It is of limited interest in terms of reservoir potential.
It is marked by deposits of a fluviatile nature that are developing throughout the basin. The TAGI has two main sequences: Maturity map of the Silurian. Yaha source Ordovician Cambrian Ordovician The Hamra quartzites and the Ouargla sandstones are the two main reservoirs in the Ordovician reservoirs. Presently, they are recognized as having potential in the area of the southeast Triassic depression gas and oil at Hamra and Rhourde En Nouss, and oil at Nezla and in the Dahar depression oil in the Semhari field on extensions of the Rhourde El Baguel trends.
Mean thickness of these reservoirs is m, and they evolve gradually from the southeast Triassic depression pinching out toward the northeast toward the TouggourtSemhari region. Production from quartzite reservoirs of this type is associated with the existence of fracturing. Cambrian The Cambrian reservoirs are represented by three units: R1 Ri and RaR2, and R3. The best reservoirs are found in the Ri and Ra sandstones, which are generally quartzitic.
The Cambro-Ordovician reservoirs recognized so far are located on the northern and western edges of the Berkine basin. Seal The Triassic reservoirs are sealed by the clays of the Triassic limestones—Intermediate, and evaporites of the Triassic-Liassic.
Fault throws provide a lateral seal in most traps. Traps and migration in the Berkine basin. In the Carboniferous and Devonian, intraformational clays provide capping. At the edges of the basal basin, TAGI passages with poor characteristics provide a vertical cap associated with the Triassic limestones. The Ordovician and Cambrian reservoirs are sealed by the Silurian clays and intra-Ordovician clays, respectively. In the Cambrian, the El Gassi clay provides a cap.
Laterally, the vertical throws of faults associated with structural trends ensure lateral closures. Traps Traps in the Triassic reservoirs are of two types: The structural traps are associated with Hercynian and Austrian compressive phases.
Simple anticlinal traps represent the most prominent example the RKF structure, an unfaulted multiphase structure. Faulted anticlines are structures against faults of the Ourhoud and Rhourde En Nouss types. Oil accumulations within the Triassic. Traps under unconformities can be found in the northwestern part of the basin where the lower Devonian wedges out onto eruptive rocks or beneath the Triassic. Sandstone lenses in the Triassic limestones can form local stratigraphic traps if they lie in the path of hydrocarbon migration.
There are four plays within the Berkine basin: Triassic play There are three producing reservoirs in the Triassic play Fig. Extension limits for reservoirs and source rocks in the Berkine basin.
Source rock, cap rock, and traps in the Triassic play. Source rock, cap rock, and traps in the Carboniferous play.
Laterally, the vertical throws of faults associated with structural trends provide lateral closures Tint. Source rock, cap rock, and traps in the Silurian-Devonian play. Carboniferous play The Carboniferous reservoir takes the form of sandstone intervals within clay-sandstone sequences associated with a shallow marine depositional environment Strunian.
The Tournaisian and Visean formations are fluvio-deltaic.
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The Visean sandstone produces gas and condensate at ORD The Tournaisian sandstones produce gas and condensate at Menzel Lejmat. Rarely developed in the Berkine basin, the Eifelian reservoir, represented by a sequence that is locally present in the El Merk region, produces dry gas at EME-1 Table 1. The lower Devonian sandstones are of fluviatile origin.
There is significant fracturing, and this plays a part in encouraging permeability, which ranges from 50 to mD in the Hassi Larroque structure. Several gas discoveries have been made in this reservoir: Brides, Nezla, Meksem, and Rhourde Adra south. The Gassi El Adem produces gas and oil Fig. The quartzite sandstones of the Cambrian generally have mediocre petrophysical properties. The fracture network is controlled by the transpressive tectonic and plays a prominent role in oil and gas interests.
Very extensive diagenesis was caused by compaction and pressure solution, and often resulted in quartzification of the sediments. The main positive hydrocarbon results have been found at the Damrane oil field. Other wells, which have reached the Cambrian, have produced water or were dry Table 1. Results and prospects The Berkine basin is one of the most important hydrocarbon-producing basins.
Exploration effort in this basin is ongoing. Seismic and drilling activity has been extensive, including: The hydrocarbon potential outside the ongoing development and production areas is undoubtedly significant.
Hydrocarbon findings within the Ordovician. Source rock, cap rock, and traps in the Cambro-Ordovician play. Oil fields and pipeline network in the Oued Mya basin.
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It is one of the most prolific basins in Algeria and contains several oil and gas fields in the Triassic sandstones, which are the main oil target. Several other oil fields and discoveries within the basin produce mainly from the Triassic sandstones but also from Ordovician quartzite sandstones and Lower Devonian sandstones. The Oued Mya is an intracratonic basin in which the type series of the Triassic province has developed with a thin Miocene-Pliocene section 0 to m and a thick Mesozoic series that can exceed 4, m Fig.
The latter thickens toward the northeast of the basin and lies with angular unconformity on the Paleozoic formations, which have been strongly affected by Hercynian erosion Fig. Subcrop view at the Hercynian discordance. The basin is bounded by the Djemaa-Touggourt High structure to the north, the Mouydir basin to the south, the Amguid-Messaoud High structure to the east, and the Allal dome to the west.
The present structural arrangement of the basin is the result of several tectonic phases, the most important of which are the Pan-African, Hercynian, the Triassic-Cretaceous extension, the Austrian, and the major Alpine phase. The graptolite clays of the radioactive Silurian constitute the main source rock in the basin. This excellent source rock has been in the oil phase since the Upper Cretaceous.
It reaches the gas phase in some very deep zones Benoud. Three main kitchen areas are recognized in the basin: The El Gassi clays and the Azzel clays of the Ordovician are secondary source rocks. There are two main reservoirs in the basin: The quartzite sandstones of the Hamra quartzites unit Ordovician are regarded as the main target since the recent discovery of oil in the Berkaoui structure Well BKP.
There are two main secondary reservoirs: The regional rock seal for the Triassic reservoirs consists of the evaporites of the Triassic salt-bearing S4 and the Liassic levels S3 to S1. The rock seal of the Paleozoic reservoirs consists of an interbedded clay series.
Traps in the basin are of the structural, mixed, or purely stratigraphic type. Petroleum system Triassic play In the Oued Mya basin, the Triassic corresponds to an Azoic detritic assemblage covered by the evaporitic deposits of the salt-bearing S4 and resting with angular unconformity on formations of variable age from the Cambrian to Lower Devonian.
At the base, the basin is bounded by the Hercynian unconformity, and at the top by the base of dolomite,2 which is of Hettangian age and regional extent. Palynological dating gives the Triassic deposits a variable age from Lower Carnian to Rhaetian.
In the Oued Mya basin the Triassic reservoir is subdivided into six lithological units. From bottom to top, they are the Lower Series, the eruptive rocks, level T1 members C and Blevel T2 member Athe lower clays, and salt-bearing S4. The surface topography of the Hercynian unconformity and the extensional tectonic regime in the course of Triassic rifting are major factors controlling the distribution of the Triassic sediments.
The main source rock for the Triassic reservoirs in the Oued Mya basin consists of radioactive Silurian clays. Ordovician clays El Gassi clays and Azzel clays are source rocks of lesser importance. Reservoirs Lower Series The Lower Series represents the basal member of the Triassic and is the main reservoir in the central part of the depression block It is represented by an alternation of brown to green silty clay and white, reddish brown to greenish fine to coarse sandstones and conglomeratic sandstones.
In the areas proximal to the sources of sediment, the detritic material is coarser and conglomerates are abundant Benkahla, Haoud Berkaoui, Garet Echouf, and Guellala areasinterbedded with thin clay strata. The total thickness of the Lower Series averages 50 to 70 m varying from 0 to more than 90 m. The reservoir quality of this unit is largely controlled by the sedimentary facies and their textural characteristics.
Particle size, cement, and binder concentrations are the main factors controlling permeability. The sandstones of the Lower Series underwent the effects of intensive diagenetic activity to the north of the basin. Pressure dissolution and the formation of secondary quartz are common. Anhydrite, carbonate, and salt cements are also present. Levels T1 and T2 The T1 and T2 levels are represented by reddish brown fine to coarse sandstones and silty and slightly dolomitic reddish brown clays.
Sedimentation, like that of the Lower Series, is characterized by an increase in substance and thickness toward the northeast.
It is controlled by the new relief created by the emplacement of the eruptive rocks and the tectonic readjustments associated with Triassic rifting. Units T1 and T2 were deposited in a continental fluviatile environment, progressively passing into fluvio-deltaic sedimentation toward the northeast.
The sandstones are gray and red, micaceous, coarse at the base, or with clay pebbles. Reddish brown or greenish gray floodplain clay strata separate the sequences with the presence of paleosols. The total thickness of units T1 and T2 averages on the order of m and increases toward the north, where it can exceed m. Ordovician play The Ordovician, which produces oil in several wells in blockstarts with deposits evolving from continental to marine and marking the onset of a marine transgression, ending in a glacial period.
It is subdivided into eight formations, from bottom to top: Source rock, cap rock, and traps in the Ordovician play. Source rock, cap rock, and traps in the Devonian play. Tin Amali the Tassili of the Ajjer. They are regarded as secondary oil targets in the basin. A number of wells drilled since in the Berkaoui region have revealed large accumulations of oil in the Hamra quartzites reservoir, which is now regarded as the main oil target in the region.
Their productivity depends on the growth of open fissures and fractures Fig. Regressive shallow marine shelf—type sandstone bars, interbedded with clay series, represent the reservoir levels. The sandstones are of micaceous grains and fine to medium grey-white silico-clay. In the Oued Mya basin, the sandstone levels of the Devonian reservoir are saturated with hydrocarbons, yet they have low resistivities. Also, primary porosity seems to be preserved by ferruginous chlorite aureoles Table 1.
Cambrian play The Cambrian consists of a sandstone-conglomerate assemblage, which is mainly Azoic and was deposited in a continental fluviatile environment.
It is subdivided into several lithological units, which are, from bottom to top, Figure 1.