Iran–United States relations - Wikipedia
Timeline: Troubled history of Saudi Arabia-Iran relations. Iranian protesters with posters of the late Shi'ite cleric Nimr al-Nimr during a the Islamic Republic's conflict with the United States over Iraq and its nuclear programme. Poster for current history video. Sign in The source of tension between Iran and the U.S. stemmed from an increasingly intense conflict over oil. In fact, it served as a model for other covert operations during the Cold War, such as the July 3, A U.S. Navy ship shoots down an Iranian passenger plane carrying people. The cease-fire ends eight years of war between Iran and Iraq. gone to Afghanistan in the s to fight the Soviets under the banner of Islam.
The majority of the students go on to serve in senior government positions. It remains the longest-running hostage crisis in recorded history. Following the crisis, Carter severes diplomatic ties with Iran and signed an executive order to freeze all assets, properties, and bank accounts of the Iranian government in the US. The trade was aimed at winning the release of Americans held by pro-Iranian Shia Muslim militants in Lebanon.
Money from the sales was secretly passed to US-backed Contra guerrillas who attempted to overthrow the left wing government in Nicaragua. Iran attacks any tanker of the Gulf states that supported Iraq in retaliation. In the one-day operation, Americans sink two Iranian vessels and oil platforms. The plane was loaded with Iranian pilgrims who were on their way to Mecca.
An era of 'reform'?
He was billed by some as reform-minded for his call for "a dialogue with the American people" in an interview with a US TV channel.
In practice, it harbours Al Qaeda for several years, allowing the group to operate from Iranian soil. The group exposes the existence of the enrichment plant in Natanz and the heavy-water plant in Arak. Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad visits the Natanz nuclear enrichment facility, km miles south of Tehran on April 8, An Israeli-Lebanese peace deal calls for Israel to make a phased withdrawal from Lebanon.
The PLO had been using Lebanon as a base of operations against Israel, and several times in the s and '80s Israel had invaded Lebanon as a result. Under the terms of the peace agreement, Israeli forces begin to leave Lebanon, but maintain control over a mile-wide "security zone" in southern Lebanon, near the Israeli border.
The Hezbollah, an Islamic militant group that opposes Israel's presence in Lebanon, continues to attack military posts in southern Lebanon and northern Israel. Israeli forces will continue to combat these forces for another 22 years, until Israel leaves southern Lebanon entirely in January of Related Links May Kenan Evren returns Turkey to democratic rule following three years of military rule.
Evren leads a coup and imposes military rule in an attempt to end years of fighting between opposing radical groups that ultimately leads to 5, deaths. Returning the country to democratic rule inhe will serve as Turkey's president until Menachem Begin resigns as prime minister of Israel.
Begin's resignation, an event publicly attributed to his depression following his wife's death, follows the Israeli invasion of Lebanon which fails to accomplish all of its objectives and the embarrassing massacres at the hands of Israel-allied Christian militias of Palestinian civilians in the refugee camps of Beirut.
Yitzhak Shamir succeeds Begin as prime minister, replacing him as head of the Herut Party. Marine barracks in Lebanon is attacked by a suicide bomber.
During the Lebanese civil war, a suicide bomber detonates a truck full of explosives, killing U. Marines and wounding more than others. The were part of a contingent of 1, Marines sent to Lebanon as part of a multinational force to help separate the warring Lebanese factions. No group claims responsibility for the attack. Kurdish terrorists in Turkey begin a bloody campaign for independence.
Trump’s sanctions against Iran are a clear breach of international law
The Kurdistan Workers' Party, founded inlaunches a campaign of terror designed to win independence for the ethnic Kurdish people living primarily in southeastern Turkey. Between andan estimated 20, to 40, people die in clashes between Turkish troops and Kurdish militants and civilians. Yemen and Saudi Arabia clash over the discovery of oil in the Empty Quarter. Oil reserves are discovered in the Empty Quarter, a vast desert that extends over much of Northern Yemen and southeastern Saudi Arabia.
Conflicting claims to the potentially valuable land cause conflict, largely because there is no defined boundary between the two countries. Sultan Salman al-Saud flies aboard the space shuttle Discovery as a payload specialist.
Commercial extraction of Yemen's natural oil reserves begin. Earnings from oil production and refinement will result in significant contributions to the Yemeni economy over the next decade. Talks of the reunification of Northern and Southern Yemen accelerate.
Civil war breaks out in Southern Yemen. A Marxist clash with the government of Southern Yemen results in civil war. The arms-for-hostages deal that comes to be known as the Iran-Contra Affair comes to light. After a week of denying any covert activities, U. Reagan later admits the arrangement had become a swap -- arms assistance in return for hostages in Lebanon. The American public is outraged by the dealings with a hostile Iran, as well as with Reagan himself, for breaking his campaign promise to never enter into such negotiations.
Some of the arms profits are later discovered to have been diverted to illegally aid Nicaraguan Contra rebels, who are locked in combat with the Communist-backed Sandinistas. Related Links December 9, The Palestinian intifada, a spontaneous popular uprising against Israeli occupation, starts in the West Bank and Gaza.
Young Palestinian demonstrators hurl stones and incendiary devices at Israeli troops in the Occupied Territories. The Israeli military responds with rubber bullets and live ammunition, consistent with its "iron-fist policy. More than 20, people, both Israelis and Palestinians, are killed or injured between and Women comprise about 25 percent of Iraq's work force.
Iraqi women hold professional positions e. They are allowed to vote and serve as elected officials in the National Assembly. Iraq uses chemical weapons against the Kurds. The Kurdish areas of northern Iraq have long been in conflict with the Baghdad regime.
Iran Hostage Crisis - HISTORY
In the Kurdish town of Halabjah, Iraq unleashes chemical weapons, killing between 50, andpeople. Related Links July Although King Hussein recognized the Palestine Liberation Organization as the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people inhe severs political links with the PLO and orders its main offices closed. His actions stem from his frustration over the PLO's issuing of a point statement calling for an end to Israeli occupation and an independent Palestinian state, and Yasser Arafat's refusal to accept UN resolutions as a basis for peace talks.
Navy ship shoots down an Iranian passenger plane carrying people. The Navy claims that the aircraft was mistaken for a fighter jet. The Iranians regard the shooting down of the plane as a "terrorist" act and seek retribution through the World Court. The cease-fire ends eight years of war between Iran and Iraq. The Iraqis now turn their attention to the Kurdish population, many of whom had supported Iran. Thousands of Kurds flee Iraq for refuge in Turkey.
The first Afghan travels in space. A talented pilot in the Afghan air force, Abdul Ahad Mohmand, is chosen to train as a Russian cosmonaut and travel to the Mir space station as part of International Group 6. Mohmand remains in space for nine days. A flag and a national anthem for the new state are also adopted. Benazir Bhutto becomes prime minister of Pakistan.
Benazir Bhutto, daughter of the country's ex-premier, is sworn in as prime minister of Pakistan. She is the first woman to head the government of an Islamic state.
Best known for his Cairo trilogy Palace Walk, Palace of Desire, and Sugar Street, written betweenauthor Naguib Mahfouz has written more than 30 novels that combine the Western narrative style with traditional Arabic storytelling. Over his long career, he has written in both realistic and fantastic styles. The United States had long refused to deal with the Palestine Liberation Organization until it accepted certain conditions: By the late s, talk of peace negotiations is in the air.
All people onboard Pan Am flight are killed in a bombing believed to be in retaliation for U. The raids led to the destruction of Libyan president Qaddafi's house and the death of his young daughter. Osama bin Laden founds the al-Qaeda network. In Osama bin Laden forms al-Qaeda. Meaning "the base," al-Qaeda grows out of the network of Arab volunteers who had gone to Afghanistan in the s to fight the Soviets under the banner of Islam. Its creation coincides with the Soviets' withdrawal from Afghanistan.
The charismatic bin Laden uses the contacts he had made there to organize this international group of motivated Islamic radicals. Sinceal-Qaeda has been headquartered in Afghanistan, where bin Laden was able to forge a close relationship with the ruling Taliban. Al-Qaeda, however, is thought to operate in 40 to 50 countries, not only in the Middle East and Asia but also in North America and Europe. A loosely knit group, it operates across continents as a chain of interlocking networks comprising different groups, or "cells.
Qatar issues its first tourist visas and begins to build its tourism industry. In the mids, a number of museums open, including the Ethnographical Museum and the Qatar National Museum in Doha. Qatar Airways is established incarrying passengers to and from points in the Middle East, Asia, and Europe.
Though still not a popular destination for tourists, Qatar hosts a number of conferences, summits, and athletic competitions each year. Many Muslims believe that The Satanic Verses, a novel about a young Indian's life in Britain and the roots of his Muslim faith, irreverently fictionalizes the early Islamic community and Muslim life. Khomeini issues a fatwa, or religious opinion, on the matter. Rushdie spends nine years in hiding until Iran's government announces it no longer supports attempts to kill him.
Oman's Muscat Stock Exchange opens. This popular stock exchange attracts investors from the Gulf and from the West. Ayatollah Khomeini of Iran dies and is succeeded by Ali Khameini. Some two million Iranians attend the Ayatollah Khomeini's funeral in Tehran in Thousands of mourners are injured in the chaos.
The grisly events that dot the timeline of US-Iran relations
After Khomeini's death, Ali Khameini becomes ayatollah, Iran's chief religious leader also known as the Supreme Leader. A military coup backed by the National Islamic Front brings Lt.
Omar Hassan al-Bashir to power in the Sudan. Stricter interpretations of Islamic law are imposed under Lt. Female literacy in Yemen reaches 26 percent. Whereas only 3 percent of Yemeni women are literate inby the early '90s the country's female literacy rate hits 26 percent.
Yemeni women share the same right to education as men. Related Links May 22, Northern and Southern Yemen unite in a democratic republic. North and south reunite after nearly a decade of trying. The formation of the Republic of Yemen ends centuries of tribal and religious squabbles and signals the end of absolute rule.
A democratic system of government based on popular elections, freedom of speech, and an independent judiciary is installed. Related Links August 2, Iraq, led by Saddam Hussein, invades neighboring Kuwait. By a vote ofthe UN Security Council condemns the invasion and demands unconditional withdrawal of Iraqi troops from Kuwait. On August 6, the UN imposes sanctions on Iraq, ending all trade with the aggressor nation.
Related Links August King Fahd invites U. Related Links September Saudi Arabia sendsYemeni workers home over Persian Gulf sentiments. Many Yemenis had long sought work in Saudi Arabia, as Yemen produces few goods for export and depends on jobs outside the country for good wages.
When the Yemeni government calls for an "Arab solution" to the conflict in the Gulf and insists on Western troop withdrawal from the region, Saudi Arabia orders Yemeni workers home. The Yemeni workforce and the country's economy suffer greatly as a result. The Taif Accord balances power in Lebanon's executive branch between Christians and Muslims, ending the year civil war.
It establishes a more representative executive branch based on recent estimates of the population. A half-Christian, half-Muslim Cabinet assumes many of the powers of the president, and the Muslim prime minister is given powers more equitable to those of the Christian president. As emigration restrictions are loosened in Russia and former Eastern bloc countries, about a million Jews arrive in Israel.
Over the past decade, many Eastern European countries have begun to mitigate their foreign policies on Israel, opening diplomatic relations and lifting emigration bans. The migration of Jews from Russia and former Soviet states gives Israel the largest Russian-speaking population outside the former Soviet Union.
Related Links January 15, March 3, Following the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in Augustthe United States, the former Soviet Union, Japan, and much of Europe and the Middle East condemn the attack and resolve to drive the invaders out. Saudi Arabia does likewise.
Timeline: Troubled history of Saudi Arabia-Iran relations
SomeIraqis are killed in the war, with relatively few reported coalition casualties. Though his army is forced to surrender, Iraqi president Saddam Hussein does not relinquish power.
Kuwait is liberated from Iraq by coalition forces led by the U. Coalition ground operations begin and last only three days before occupying Iraqi troops are expelled from Kuwait. Related Links March 2, The Iraqi army kills 50, Kurds and Shii Muslims.
More than a million Kurds flee to Turkey and Iran. Related Links April Facing foreign pressures, Egypt launches an economic reform program. For the first time since Egypt nationalized major industries in the s, the government also lets foreigners buy Egyptian property, control Egyptian banks, and even own and operate Egyptian power stations and highways. Related Links April 6, Under the terms of the agreement, Iraq agrees to pay war damages to Kuwait and to destroy its chemical and biological weapons stockpiles and production facilities.
The United Nations is charged with enforcing the agreement. Jordan comes under severe economic and diplomatic strain as a result of the Persian Gulf crisis following Iraq's invasion of Kuwait.
Both King Hussein and Yasser Arafat suffer global diplomatic isolation while, more locally, Gulf states cut off their financial aid. As aid from Gulf Arab states and other income sources contract, refugees flood Jordan, stunting its GDP growth and straining government resources. Because Jordan is a small country with inadequate supplies of water and other natural resources such as oil, the loss of aid from neighboring Arab states aggravates its already serious economic problems, forcing the government to stop most debt payments and suspend rescheduling negotiations.
Smoke from burning oil wells in Iraq causes severe health and environmental problems throughout the Middle East. The entire Middle East region, even those countries not directly involved in the fighting, suffers a toll from the Gulf War. Weather patterns are disrupted, black rain from oil residues and acids destroys crops, and the number of respiratory ailments soars. The UN deems Iraq a pre-industrial state as a result of its recent wars. The war with Iran from and the recent Gulf War, together with the subsequent imposition of international sanctions, has a devastating effect on Iraq's economy and society.
UN reports describe living standards as being at subsistence level. Some 47, children under 5 years of age are believed to have died from war-related causes following the Gulf War alone. Turkey lifts its decade-long ban on the use of the Kurdish language in publications. Although the Kurdish-language ban -- in effect since Turkey's military rule in -- is lifted for use in publications, the ban on its use in the political arena remains in place. Yemen ratifies its constitution.
The constitution of the Republic of Yemen is ratified, providing for a president, vice president, House of Representatives, and Council of Ministers. Related Links May Operation Solomon, a dramatic airlift, brings 15, Ethiopian Jews to live in Israel. Airlifts to Israel of Ethiopian Jews suffering from famine and oppression had begun in the s, prior to Operation Solomon.
The integration of Ethiopians into Israeli society has not been smooth for reasons both of culture and race. Related Links Summer Related Links October November 1, Two negotiating tracks are established: Separate bilateral talks involving Israel, the Palestinians, Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon are intended to resolve past conflicts and sign peace treaties; and multilateral negotiations are aimed at building the Middle East of the future.
Related Links December In the first round of general elections in Algeria inthe FIS wins seats outright and seems sure to obtain an absolute majority in the second round.
The National People's Assembly is dissolved by presidential decree, and a military council takes power. After violent demonstrations, the FIS is disbanded. The television series Nightline began as a nightly news report on the hostage crisis its original title was The Iran Crisis--America Held Hostage.
Through this coup, code-named Operation TP-Ajax, Mossadegh was deposed and a new government was installed in August In fact, it served as a model for other covert operations during the Cold Warsuch as the government takeover in Guatemala and the failed intervention in Cuba in However, many Iranians bitterly resented what they saw as American intervention in their affairs.
The Shah turned out to be a brutal, arbitrary dictator whose secret police known as the SAVAK tortured and murdered thousands of people. Meanwhile, the Iranian government spent billions of dollars on American-made weapons while the Iranian economy suffered.
In protest, they turned to the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, a radical cleric whose revolutionary Islamist movement seemed to promise a break from the past and a turn toward greater autonomy for the Iranian people. In Julythe revolutionaries forced the Shah to disband his government and flee to Egypt.
- Timeline: Iran-US relations
- TIMELINE-U.S.-Iran relations from 1953 coup to 2016 sanctions relief
- The grisly events that dot the timeline of US-Iran relations
The Ayatollah installed a militant Islamist government in its place. The United States, fearful of stirring up hostilities in the Middle East, did not come to the defense of its old ally. However, in October President Carter agreed to allow the exiled leader to enter the U.