The Spanish Crown and Native Americans | Owlcation
formal Native American armed resistance grew more intensive over time. . and subordinate relationships between Spanish authorities. Spanish & Mexican Indian Policy Buffalo hunt by Seth Eastman. During the period of Spanish rule (), Texas was one of four. Native American culture valued trade as a means of binding two tribes and the Spanish and French settlers before them and began to demonize the natives in.
In the eighteenth century, the Dutch and English competed with the French for trade and territory, which gave local Indians continued economic, diplomatic, and military leverage as Europeans competed for their trade and military alliances through the seventeenth century. Unlike the French and Spanish, the Dutch did not emphasize religious conversion in their relationships with Native Americans.
They established a fur trade alliance with the Iroquois confederacy, the most powerful Native American empire in 17th-century North America.
Spanish Treatment of the Natives | History Resources at Mott Community College
Although smallpox and other European diseases drastically reduced the Iroquois population, the confederation remained strong because they negotiated an advantageous alliance with the Dutch. Dutch weapons helped the Iroquois to defeat the Huron, who were leaders of the other major pan-Indian confederacy in the area. As often as possible, Native Americans took advantage of rivalries among European powers to maintain or enhance their own political and economic positions.
The Iroquois quickly signed an alliance and trade treaty with the English.
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However, they also maintained friendly relations with the French and welcomed Jesuit missionaries into their midst. The Iroquois were generally successful at playing the French and English off one another until the English drove the French out of North America at the end of the French and Indian War For more information Axtell, James. The Cultural Origins of North America.
Oxford University Press, University of North Carolina Press, Cambridge University Press, Facing East from Indian Country: A Native History of Early America. Harvard University Press, Invasions of North America. She received her Ph.
Her book, Remaking Custom: The role the church played in state affairs at the time, particularly as it relates to the missionaries is crucial in developing a keener understanding. The attitudes and reactions of the various rulers from Isabella and Ferdinand, to Charles V and Phillip II all play an important part in how the Native Americans were treated.
The Spanish Crown is a complex term with a varied meaning.
Certainly, up until the marriage of Isabella and Ferdinand inthe Iberian Peninsula constituted various similar but separate kingdoms. Even under the rule of the Ferdinand and Isabella, the Castilian and Aragonese Kingdoms functioned largely as two separate crowns. The exploration into the Atlantic was done solely by Isabella, just as the reconquest of the Granada had been a specifically Castilian endeavour.
Aragon was a much smaller Mediterranean leaning kingdom, whereas, for Castile, the success of a voyage westwards would allow Isabella a superiority over Portugal.
Aragon was busy with their own conflicts such as the Italian wars which spanned most of the following century. Indeed, before her death, Isabella had originally intended the American possessions to be solely for Castilian benefit, and in a monopoly on New World trade was given to Seville.
The relatively new state was, at the time of exploration and conquest, struggling to assert its control in its own lands. Feudal lords were battling with the crown over dominance in their areas. It is important, therefore, certainly of the early conquest, to not think of the actions of the Crown towards the Natives as one unified Spanish response done by a monarch in total control, but rather a disjointed attempt at asserting influence.
The Spanish arrival in America inmarked a turning point throughout Europe.
The Spanish Crown and Native Americans
However, it would take another two decades for serious colonisation to take place in mainland America by the Spanish. Two separate campaigns led by Hernan Cortes and Pizarro led to the collapse of the Aztec and the Inca empires respectively. A distinction must be made, however, between the early pillage done by Columbus and his crew in the Caribbean, and the actions down under the administration of the crown on mainland America during Spanish colonisation.
Prior tothe crown had struggled to assert control over the Caribbean, which dire consequences for the Natives. Under the governorship of Nicolas de Ovando, the crown was able to exert some order in the area. Although early Spanish involvement resulted in death and destruction for the Natives population, the Crown made definite attempts to protect them in their colonisation and rule over America in the coming century, and with the aid of the church, serious and positive efforts were made to care for their well-being.
This translated to the new world as well, and particularly through the treatment of its Native population. This, in turn, was coupled with a hope that a successful voyage would extend the Christian Kingdom. Friars and preachers accompanied colonisers, as the quest to extend to the empire of the crown, was done in addition to extending the word of God to the Native population.
In turn, the missionaries conducted by the church at the time, are intertwined with the work of the Crown. One of the most important preachers during the period was Bartholome de las Casas.Spanish and Native Americans Video
In his preaching, he called for the Native Americans to be incorporated into the crown, in which they would be given the title of vassals, which stopped the Natives from falling under the category of slaves. Both the governor of Cuba Velazquez and Cortes spoke of the colonisation effort as a mission for God. Las Casas led much of the preaching about the role of the church and the crown in protecting the Indians, leading debates in Valladolid against Sepulveda. Las Casas claimed that Christian kings had a higher duty to protect the rights of the Natives.
The brunt method of forced conversions done to the Muslims under Cardinal Cisneros, only occurred very briefly in America, before being phased out. The serious nature of this endeavour to placate the Natives is no better shown that by how accepting the crown was to the demands Las Casas placed on it and its bishops regarding Native well-being.
The conduct of the church with its conversion policies and willingness to adhere to Las Casas was linked to a positive attitude shown by the crown to the Native Americans. The role of Las Casas was crucial in the reaction of the Spanish crown to the treatment of the Native Americans. A former slave owner turned preacher, Las Casas attempted to appeal to the conscience of court preachers to end the exploitation of Native Americans.
Las Casas argued relentlessly against those who claimed that colonisation gave Castile the right to Native labour and goods. The same is true for many aspects of Spanish colonisation, where the crown took the treatment of Native Americans very seriously, albeit at the expense of other groups.