From its beginning, the relationship between Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau was powered by the passions and extraordinary expectations of. In Ralph Waldo Emerson's essay "Self Reliance" and Henry David Thoreau's If Emerson had made the relationship between conformity and nonconformity in. That dignified figure was the ex-minister Ralph Waldo Emerson, leader exclusively on Emerson and Henry David Thoreau during their long.
While this led to a prolonged period of estrangement between them, they were ultimately able to reconcile their differences. Many years after Thoreau died, Emerson could look back over his long life and say that Henry had been his best friend. Since the thoughts and feelings of the two men are so well documented in their journals and letters, Smith is able to trace the pattern of their emotional involvement in great detail.
What emerges is both a remarkable portrait of their relationship and an intimate look at the nature of friendship itself. Reviews "This bracingly clear, humanely intelligent book has much to offer both professional and lay readers. The narrative often represents the excruciating ambivalence of feelings Emerson and Thoreau had for one another in ways that assume a familiarity and comfort with 20th-century approaches to psychology. But Smith's skillful probing of each man's depths—through close attention to famous works, letters, and each writer's massive journal—is so sensitive, sympathetic, and gentle that he leaves the first law for all would-be healers, Do no harm, wonderfully unbroken.
A compelling, balanced, and well-written study. Smith's gift is making the ambiguities, nuances, and importance of this friendship come alive.
At this meeting, Emerson suggested to Thoreau that he should keep a journal; Thoreau began one that day and kept the habit throughout his life. In Thoreau accepted the invitation to move in with the Emerson family. Within two weeks In January ofeach of the two men suffered a loss which strongly influenced the shape of his life and of their friendship.
During this time, Emerson purchased land on Walden Pond, and helped Thoreau to accumulate the tools and resources to build a cabin to which he could retire in order to finish his book A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers.
When Emerson returned, both men seemed to have changed, and neither appreciated the changes in the other. According to John Ronan, the outer change in Emerson was alienating to Thoreau.
Over the course of the next decade, Emerson became more successful as a lecturer and more prominent in the public eye. Although Thoreau began to lecture occasionally, much of his time was spent retreating into both the finishing of Week and the revision of Walden. The two men continued to interact, but it is apparent in studying their journals that the relationship was strained; there were disappointments, frustrations and misunderstandings on both sides.
InEmerson became ill with a serious case of measles, and the fear that he might die caused Thoreau to seek a reconciliation with him that seems to have restored their friendship. When Thoreau died of tuberculosis inEmerson gave the address at his funeral. When published as an essay, that address not only eulogized Thoreau but also became, according to Buell, the most influential piece written on Thoreau: Believers were compelled to adhere to particular analytic requirements and were therefore not able to attain dialectic knowledge of diverse biblical readings 3.
A group of liberal Christians, who were intensely influenced by those ideas, sought to unify reason and enthusiasm in an ethical system that allowed for self-contained and enlightened judgement. The most significant representative of this religious insight was the Unitarian 5 William Ellery Chaning —who is also regarded as the forerunner of transcendentalism.
They propagated a critical confrontation with theological questions in order to console the religious crisis of their time.
Believing that a scientifically based view could give firm evidence of biblical revelation, they attached themselves to the Empiricist doctrine of John Locke 8.
According to Locke, human intuitive knowledge is restricted to the confines of deductive logic, which means that all assertion can only be deduced through information gained by our sensory perception. As a consequence, he considered human cognitive competence as very constrained, as it is only based on empirical knowledge.
Consequently, this view rejected the assumption that Divine Truth may be received directly by the human soul without any exertion of the faculty of judgement 9.
Transcendentalism as a Social Movement Their emphasized principle of reasoning helped overcome the bigotry of the Puritans, but on the other hand, it suggested that religious practice in New England was doomed to freeze into dogmatism and social materialism.
European Enlightenment and the democratic concept of liberty was revived on a spiritual level by the emergence of transcendentalism. Its members criticized the stubborn adherence of the Unitarians to the Bible as the only and direct relation to God, since they regarded it as an historical document of a less enlightened time.
Averting themselves from historically based dogmatism, they turned towards the inner life of the individual and towards the intuitive font of Truth. They believed in the vocation of man to recognize Divine Revelation within himself, beyond empirical experience.
The following statement by the transcendentalist George Ripley could well summarize the religious standpoint of the group: As a very well-read woman and a strong, impulsive and vivid character, she incited Emerson to think critically and to maintain a liberal religious attitude.
He considered it a formality without any truthful spiritual significance. This was the death of his wife, Ellen Louisa Tucker, only two years after their marriage. As a result of this tragic experience, the young Emerson fell into a deep emotional crisis, which he strived to overcome by his search for the existence of God, as his famous biographer Richardson describes.
In their writings he finally found confirmation and reinforcement of his vision of an intuitive philosophy and of his personal desire for an unrestricted relationship with God. Oxford Dictionary of English.
My Friend, My Friend
The transcendental question turns towards the subject, assuming that the subject in the process of cognition constitutes the object in his consciousness. Accordingly, cognition is not to be understood as a passive acceptance of a given fact, but as an active accomplishment of the subject.
Thus, Kant deduces that we are able to recognize certain general regularities and phenomena of reality, because they already exist a priori in our cognitive faculty and are projected into objects. He saw reason as a higher spiritual faculty, where ideas in their significance - according to Plato 23 - as unique, true and original images dwell.
The opening sentences of the essay have a spontaneous and self-reliant character in their denial of all tradition. It builds the sepulchers of our fathers. It writes biographies, histories, and criticism.
Emerson calls for breaking with conformity, and insists on becoming more self-reliant. As manifestations of Divine Creation, they are all accessible to the human mind.
We, through their eyes. Gazing at the stars, he becomes aware of his own separateness from the material world. Visible every night, they demonstrate that God is ever-present. Emerson saw a special bond between the object of observation and the observer, especially in the human capacity to rejoice in something.
Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau
When retreating oneself in nature, the individual can experience them as parallel creations of the same omnipresent Spirit. He discloses that the human being is endowed with a particular property which enables him to recognize the identity of man and nature.
Thus, the image of the subject and object sharing one particular property is similar to the Kantian a priori idea: In nature, the individual casts off his earthly existence and experiences the divine universal spirit as a force which flows through man and nature.
Due to this energy which dwells also in man, the individual is able to experience a moment of confidence and delight in the eternal universal energy: In the woods, too, a man casts off his years, as the snake his slough, and at what period so ever of life is always a child. In the woods there is a perpetual youth. Within these plantations of God, a decorum and sanctity reign, a perennial festival is dressed, and the guest sees not how he should tire of them in a thousand years.
I am standing on the bare ground, - my head bathed by the blithe air and uplifted into the infinite space, - all mean egotism vanishes. I become a transparent eye-ball; I am nothing; I see all; the currents of the Universal Being circulate through me; I am part and particle of God. In the contemplative removal of all ontological restrictions between subjectivity and the absolute being by abolishment of all egotistic aspirations, the individual experiences a sameness among nature, God and himself.
In the moment of immersion with the Universal Soul, the individual encounters the greatest form of blessedness. To experience awe in the presence of nature, means to approach it with a balance between our inner and outer senses. Therefore, it is the particular harmony between man's inner processes and the outer world that enables the soul to elevate itself.