Mycorrhiza - Wikipedia
mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in the roots of perennial herbaceous plants and to .. neither is there a direct relationship between sporulation and root colonisation. Plants grew better in acid than in alkaline soil, and Glomus sp (iso- late LPA21) Ces mêmes inoculums ont été comparés à des isolats endomycorhizogènes capables de stimuler la crois- . was mycorrhizal, while this parameter attained = 30% for the . Clapperton MJ, Reid DM () A relationship be-. V. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis for a sustainable agriculture. .. highlighted relationships between plant roots and fungi in an association called Je vais donc essayer de procéder du plus professionnel au plus personnel même si.
Endomycorrhizal fungi penetrate and enter the cells of a plant root intracellular. Modern research has lead to the recognition of seven types of mycorrhizal fungi, subdividing the old, traditional groups. The new nomenclature is often more precise and specific to the associated plant taxa. The relatively homogenous ectomycorrhizal group largely remains with only the addition of the subgroup ectendomycorrhizas.
Mycorrhizal Fungi and Plant Roots | MOTHER EARTH NEWS
The endomycorrhizal group has been dismantled, but specific types are now recognized: Vescicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizas, the Orchid mycorrihzas, and those which associate with the Ericaceae Blueberry family: Fungi are heterotropic organisms, and must absorb their food. Fungi also have the ability to easily absorb elements such a phosphorus and nitrogen which are essential for life. Upon returning to Mother Earth, they simply resumed growing!
You just have to imagine the plants as equivalent to the single cells of symbiotic algae — big algae poking into the air above ground while enwrapped in a mesh of fungal threads below. I am You, and You Are Me Perhaps this is where we should shift our gaze from other species to the one calling itself Homo sapiens.
Some are harmless hitchhikers, but most are symbionts that contribute to our well-being. Roughly 30, species — primarily bacteria but also archaea, protists, and fungi mostly in the form of yeasts — typically inhabit the human stomach and intestinal tract. Still others congregate on our skin and in its pores, in the conjunctiva of our eyes, and in …. People are increasingly aware of these facts nowadays. Yet the human-microbe symbiosis goes way deeper.
Every cell in every plant and animal, many protists, and all fungi contains organelles known as mitochondria. Commonly described as the power sources of the cell, they build the molecule ATP adenosine triphosphatewhose complex bonds, when broken, release the energy needed to drive other cellular functions.
These organelles also reproduce on their own by splitting, just as bacteria do. It probably began with the bigger cell engulfing a bacterium to eat it. That combination became the primordial line that ultimately led to the larger life forms we know today.
Plants have an additional type of organelle in their cells: That in turn fuels the construction of sugars from ordinary carbon dioxide and water, with oxygen given off as a byproduct. Like mitochondria, chloroplasts have their own DNA and reproduce independently.
As far as scientists can tell, the chloroplasts are almost certainly a strain of cyanobacteria. Widespread in early seas, those microbes were among the first — and maybe the very first — organisms to develop photosynthesis. At some point, like the ancestors of mitochondria, ancient cyanobacteria merged with larger, single-celled organisms. Once again, it may have started when a bigger cell engulfed a smaller one, in this case a cyanobacterium that survived to carry on its sunlight-driven routines.
The sugars it contributed led to a better-than-average survival rate for subsequent generations of both species as they reproduced. Their descendants developed into unicellular algae, then multicellular algae, and then — with the help of symbiotic fungi — land plants. Amanita gemmata by Courtney Celley: What could have created these microscopic boreholes? I thought the beauty of post was that she has taken on the unseen microbial subject down onto a microscopic level to help the average reader understand what is going on in the complex sophisticated microscopic world where mycorrhizal fungi mine the soils not only for the basic food nutrients for plants we are familiar with like nitrogen, phosphorus, etc, but also those hard to come by trace elements [Zinc, Copper, Manganese, etc] which plants need for strong immune system health and survival against a potentially hostile world of pathogens.
Oddly enough many soils are rich in important nutrients, but they are often locked up in a physical form which makes them unavailable to most plants. That's where the fungi come in. She references this photo here below to compare chemical weathering etches scar patterns [which she compares to an earthquake graph] into a mineral called Feldspar with the contrasting mycelial strands which have a twisting tangled pattern which fungi normally make.
The photograph below she used for illustrative purposes only is Mold, growing in a Petri dish from a sample of dust and debris which was taken from some repair work in the bathroom of an apartment.
To take this picture, the photographer, Bob Blaylock put the entire Petri dish on the stage of my microscope.
Mycorrhizae and Plants Make Great Allies
The mold strands beautifully illustrate the same design patterns we see in the common mycorrhizal fungi hyphae which are clearly different from the chemical etching done on mineral rock if we were talking mere chemical reactions on stone. They are the spitting image of hyphae — that is, filaments — of fungi. Something they may have commonly stumbled upon if they have ever gone for a walk in the woods. Most granite rocks and boulders in forests will be colonized by lichens and mosses.
Most folks also understand the degradation and weathering effects that such organisms have on buildings like bricks, rock, rood slates or even the gravestones in a cemetery. Wherever naked stone is found, lichens will be there. I've previous written articles on Biological soil crusts Lichens, Mosses, Cyanobacteria, etc], from desert areas and also from here in Sweden within the shallow soils of some of this regions Boreal Forests.
Such ecosystems are fascinating and foundations for any future life development. I wrote the Boreal Forest example specifically because most people find deserts boring and the soil crusts which exist there are probably not even remotely noticed by the average person. Hence the Boreal forest example has bigger and better examples of mosses, lichens and fungi which most people find more exciting and sexy when it comes to the visual.
- Mycorrhizal Fungi and Plant Roots: A Symbiotic Relationship
But it should be noted that Desert Biocrustal systems are equally important. I'll post the links below. But it is interesting that the microscopic deeper soil layers of this subject are not effected by the surface work from these living organisms.
The acids are derived from the food that the algae provide to the fungus. They were inside little bits of stony soil.
What other fungi could be driving these tunnels? So this tangled looking fungal mantle which covers this area of the root and inserts itself in between the cortical root cells is where all the interactions of nutrient, water and sugar exchanges take place between the fungi and the plant.
See how superior nature is compared to imaginary human improvements influenced by nothing more than bottom line profiteering??? See how she describes what is going on in the above image: The hyphae that invade the root do not actually invade the cells there.
Why would a tree put up with such a flagrant home invasion? To start, the net is a secure place where the fungus and the tree can exchange goodies. Since fungi live in their food and secrete their digestive enzymes directly into it before resorbing the digested slurry, they are effectively one giant inside-out intestine to those of you who dislike mushrooms, I apologize for putting you off them forever now -- though if it helps, mushrooms themselves generally do not digest anything, being strictly reproductive structures.