BBC - History - Historic Figures: Leon Trotsky ( - )
has been at Lunacharsky's to discuss Lef and is going to visit Trotsky on the same . He had written about him before, in connection with his fiftieth birthday in According to Mayakovsky himself, he began pondering a poem about Lenin as . Literature and revolution / Leon Trotsky ; [translated by Rose. Strunsky ; introduction to . about the relationship between cultural and political change at any historical .. on literary analysis by studying the formal features of a poem or fictional. Read a brief biography about Lev 'Leon' Trotsy the Russian revolutionary. Discover facts about his grisly demise at the hands of Stalin - involving an ice pick.
Regarding his sons' surnames, Trotsky later explained that after the revolution: Trotsky never used the name "Sedov" either privately or publicly. Natalia Sedova sometimes signed her name "Sedova-Trotskaya".
Self-Portrait Dedicated to Leon Trotsky, 1937 - by Frida Kahlo
Split with Lenin — [ edit ] In the meantime, after a period of secret police repression and internal confusion that followed the First Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party inIskra succeeded in convening the party's Second Congress in London in August Trotsky and other Iskra editors attended.
The first congress went as planned, with Iskra supporters handily defeating the few "economist" delegates. Then the congress discussed the position of the Jewish Bundwhich had co-founded the RSDLP in but wanted to remain autonomous within the party. Lenin and his supporters, the Bolsheviks, argued for a smaller but highly organized party, while Martov and his supporters, the Mensheviksargued for a larger and less disciplined party.
In a surprise development, Trotsky and most of the Iskra editors supported Martov and the Mensheviks, while Plekhanov supported Lenin and the Bolsheviks.
During andmany members changed sides in the factions. Plekhanov soon parted ways with the Bolsheviks. Trotsky left the Mensheviks in September over their insistence on an alliance with Russian liberals and their opposition to a reconciliation with Lenin and the Bolsheviks. He worked between and trying to reconcile different groups within the party, which resulted in many clashes with Lenin and other prominent party members. Trotsky later maintained that he had been wrong in opposing Lenin on the issue of the party.
During these years, Trotsky began developing his theory of permanent revolutionand developed a close working relationship with Alexander Parvus in — This single strike grew into a general strike and by 7 Januarythere werestrikers in Saint Petersburg.
The Collected Writings of Leon Trotsky: Trotsky Internet Archive
The Palace Guard fired on the peaceful demonstration, resulting in the deaths of some 1, demonstrators. Sunday, 9 Januarybecame known as Bloody Sunday. There he worked with both Bolsheviks, such as Central Committee member Leonid Krasinand the local Menshevik committee, which he pushed in a more radical direction. The latter, however, were betrayed by a secret police agent in May, and Trotsky had to flee to rural Finland.
There he worked on fleshing out his theory of permanent revolution. By the evening of 24 September, the workers at 50 other printing shops in Moscow were also on strike. On 2 Octoberthe typesetters in printing shops in Saint Petersburg decided to strike in support of the Moscow strikers. On 7 Octoberthe railway workers of the Moscow—Kazan Railway went out on strike. Trotsky also co-founded, together with Parvus and Julius Martov and other Mensheviks, Nachalo "The Beginning"which also proved to be a very successful newspaper in the revolutionary atmosphere of Saint Petersburg in Khrustalyev-Nosar had been a compromise figure when elected as the head of the Saint Petersburg Soviet.
Khrustalev-Nosar was a lawyer that stood above the political factions contained in the Soviet. Khrustalev-Nosar became famous in his position as spokesman for the Saint Petersburg Soviet. He did much of the actual work at the Soviet and, after Khrustalev-Nosar's arrest on 26 Novemberwas elected its chairman. On 2 December, the Soviet issued a proclamation which included the following statement about the Tsarist government and its foreign debts: After the Revolution, Trotsky became a member of the Politburo — the committee of 5 Bolsheviks who ran the government.
Trotsky did not conduct foreign affairs in the old way. He was very blunt — he closed down the French Information Bureau because of its anti-Soviet propaganda, and arrested all Englishmen in Russia until the English released a Soviet journalist they had detained.
The Politburo decided that they had to have peace with Germany, and ordered a ceasefire Nov 7. Trotsky had to accept the very harsh terms of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk — but then he told the Germans that he would destroy them just as soon as Germany lost the war! Trotsky organised the Terror Actually, Trotsky opposed Terror — he said: Trotsky was put in charge, and began mercilessly to eliminate all enemies of the Revolution.
It was the first time that such a highly placed Communist had been accused of corruption, and the event cast a shadow over the whole party apparatus. There was no question of any objective legal process; the intention was to set an example: Kuybyshev was a close friend of the prosecutor Nikolay Krylenko, who had led the prosecution of the Socialist Revolutionaries the previous year, and who in time would turn show trials and false charges into an art form. When Krasnoshchokov was arrested, Lili and Osip were still in Berlin.
In the letter that Mayakovsky wrote to them a few days after the arrest, the sensational news is passed over in total silence. He gives them the name of the civil servant in the Berlin legation who can give them permission to import household effects which they had obviously bought in Berlin into Russia; he tells them that the squirrel which lives with them is still alive and that Lyova Grinkrug is in the Crimea.
But of the event which the whole of Moscow was talking about, and which affected Lili to the utmost degree—not a word. Sitting in the dock, apart from his brother Yakov, were three employees of the Industry Bank. Krasnoshchokov, who was a lawyer, delivered a brilliant speech in his own defense, explaining that, as head of the bank, he had the right to fix lending rates in individual cases and that one must be flexible in order to obtain the desired result. Finally, he pointed out that his private life was not within the jurisdiction of the law.
This opinion was not shared by the court, which ruled that Krasnoshchokov had lived an immoral life during a time when a Communist ought to have set a good example and not surrender to the temptations offered by the New Economic Policy. Moreover, he was excluded from the Communist Party.
Krasnoshchokov had in fact been a very successful bank director. Exactly the opposite happened: There is little to suggest that the accusations of orgies were true. But he had difficulties defending himself, as he maintained not one mistress but two—although he had a wife and children. This fact undoubtedly undermined his credibility as far as his private life was concerned.
Lamanoff, a Moscow fashion designer, had this dress made out of sackcloth from freight bales.