Frontal lobe and cognitive development.
In phylogeny as in ontogeny, the association cortex of the frontal lobe, also of cognitive functions that neuropsychological studies in animals and humans have ascribed to this cortex. ventionally defined by two basic criteria: cytoarchitec-. From: Neural Circuit Development and Function in the Brain, Related terms : function (EF) is exceedingly broad, and there is little consensus on a definition . ) has long focused on the prefrontal cortex (PFC), but this traditional view . Executive function encompasses cognitive processes, including memory. Related to the issue, we note too that frontal-lobe functioning is also related to executive functions by definition operate on other cognitive operations that.
These strokes and mini-strokes can occur due to the blockage of blood flow to the brain or as a result of the rupturing of an aneurysm in a cerebral artery. Other ways in which injury can occur include head injuries such as traumatic brain injuries incurred following accidents, diagnoses such as Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease which cause dementia symptomsand frontal lobe epilepsy which can occur at any age.
Patients who have experienced frontal lobe trauma may know the appropriate response to a situation but display inappropriate responses to those same situations in "real life".
Similarly, emotions that are felt may not be expressed in the face or voice. For example, someone who is feeling happy would not smile, and the voice would be devoid of emotion. Along the same lines, though, the person may also exhibit excessive, unwarranted displays of emotion. Depression is common in stroke patients. Also common is a loss of or decrease in motivation. Someone might not want to carry out normal daily activities and would not feel "up to it". The frontal lobe is the same part of the brain that is responsible for executive functions such as planning for the future, judgment, decision-making skills, attention spanand inhibition.
These functions can decrease drastically in someone whose frontal lobe is damaged.
Thus, executive function deficits pose serious problems for a person's ability to engage in self-regulation over time to attain their goals and anticipate and prepare for the future. While this model may broadly appeal to clinicians and researchers to help identify and assess certain executive functioning components, it lacks a distinct theoretical basis and relatively few attempts at validation.
Human Brain Functions and CogniFit
We assume that the PFC serves a specific function in cognitive control: They provide bias signals throughout much of the rest of the brain, affecting not only visual processes but also other sensory modalities, as well as systems responsible for response execution, memory retrieval, emotional evaluation, etc. The aggregate effect of these bias signals is to guide the flow of neural activity along pathways that establish the proper mappings between inputs, internal states, and outputs needed to perform a given task.
Miller and Cohen draw explicitly upon an earlier theory of visual attention that conceptualises perception of visual scenes in terms of competition among multiple representations — such as colors, individuals, or objects.
For example, imagine that you are waiting at a busy train station for a friend who is wearing a red coat. You are able to selectively narrow the focus of your attention to search for red objects, in the hope of identifying your friend. Desimone and Duncan argue that the brain achieves this by selectively increasing the gain of neurons responsive to the color red, such that output from these neurons is more likely to reach a downstream processing stageand, as a consequence, to guide behaviour.TEDxUVM 2011 - Hugh Garavan - Addiction, the Frontal Lobes, and the Science of Willpower
According to Miller and Cohen, this selective attention mechanism is in fact just a special case of cognitive control — one in which the biasing occurs in the sensory domain. According to Miller and Cohen's model, the PFC can exert control over input sensory or output response neuronsas well as over assemblies involved in memoryor emotion. Cognitive control is mediated by reciprocal PFC connectivity with the sensory and motor corticesand with the limbic system. Within their approach, thus, the term 'cognitive control' is applied to any situation where a biasing signal is used to promote task-appropriate responding, and control thus becomes a crucial component of a wide range of psychological constructs such as selective attentionerror monitoring, decision-makingmemory inhibitionand response inhibition.
Miyake and Friedman's model[ edit ] Miyake and Friedman's theory of executive functions proposes that there are three aspects of executive functions: In other words, aspects of updating, inhibition, and shifting are related, yet each remains a distinct entity. First, updating is defined as the continuous monitoring and quick addition or deletion of contents within one's working memory.
Second, inhibition is one's capacity to supersede responses that are prepotent in a given situation. Third, shifting is one's cognitive flexibility to switch between different tasks or mental states. Miyake and Friedman also suggest that the current body of research in executive functions suggest four general conclusions about these skills.
The first conclusion is the unity and diversity aspects of executive functions. The posterior DLPFC creates an appropriate attentional set, or rules for the brain to accomplish the current goal. For the Stroop task, this involves activating the areas of the brain involved in color perception, and not those involved in word comprehension. It counteracts biases and irrelevant information, like the fact that the semantic perception of the word is more salient to most people than the color in which it is printed.
The task-relevant information must be separated from other sources of information in the task.
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Allows us to direct our attention to the action. It regulated and controls the make complex cognitive tasks possible. This system makes up part of the anterior cingulate, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the orbital-frontal cortex, the neostriatum, the suplemental motor area, and the ventral tegmental area.
Memory is a complex process that allows us to code, store, and recover information. If the attentional system doesn't work properly, we won't be as efficient in doing such tasks. If we don't pay attention to something, we cannot code, store, or recover this information.
In order to understand memory, we can classify it according to two criteria: Short-term passive storage system that allows us to work with information. For example, when we try to remember a telephone number before writing it on a piece of paper. References memories that may be consciously evoked.
For example, where did we go on vacation last year? When did I graduate? When did I get married? This memory references what we've learned and our general knowledge of the world. What is the capital of France?
What is a square root? The medial temporal lobe and the diencephalon are the structures associated with this kind of memory. Non-declarative or implicit memory: References subconscious memories and some skills like riding a bike or ice-skating.
The neocortex, the amygdala when emotions are involvedthe striatum, and the reflex arcs. We also have to keep in mind that the storage zones are in the temporal lobes, but the more strategic components are more related to the frontal lobes. Executive functions are the most complex cognitive functions. While there are different definitions for cognitive functions, most of them include cognition control and thought and behavior control through various related processes.
They comprise a set of complex skills, like attention focus, planning, programming, regulation, and intentional behavior verification.