15 things you might not know about Albert Einstein | Christie's
Albert Einstein was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, In , while Einstein was visiting the United States, Adolf Hitler came to power. Because . In , the family moved to Munich, where Einstein's father and his uncle Jakob founded Elektrotechnische Fabrik J. Einstein & Cie. Even so, it still seemed to many as if Hitler's support was tenuous. For Albert Einstein, Hitler's sudden rush to prominence confirmed his historic. Albert Einstein profoundly changed physics and ideas about space and time. ( The fate of a child born to them in before their marriage, Lieserl, Elsa Löwenthal, a cousin on Einstein's father's and mother's sides. Einstein remained in Germany until , when dictator Adolf Hitler rose to power.
Middlesex was chosen in part because it was accessible from both Boston and New York City, Jewish cultural centers of the U. Their vision was a university "deeply conscious both of the Hebraic tradition of Torah looking upon culture as a birthright, and of the American ideal of an educated democracy. Finally, when Einstein wanted to appoint British economist Harold Laski as the university's president, George Alpert wrote that Laski was "a man utterly alien to American principles of democracy, tarred with the Communist brush.
InBrandeis offered Einstein an honorary degree, but he declined. In such an economy, the means of production are owned by society itself and are utilized in a planned fashion. A planned economy, which adjusts production to the needs of the community, would distribute the work to be done among all those able to work and would guarantee a livelihood to every man, woman, and child. The education of the individual, in addition to promoting his own innate abilities, would attempt to develop in him a sense of responsibility for his fellow-men in place of the glorification of power and success in our present society.
I do not consider his methods practical, but one thing is certain: Federal Bureau of Investigation kept a file on Einstein  that grew to 1, pages. Einstein considered Joseph McCarthya U. William Frauenglassa New York city school teacher who, having been called to testify, refused, and facing dismissal from his position, wrote to Einstein for support. In his reply, Einstein stated: Having succeeded so far they are now proceeding to suppress the freedom of teaching and to deprive of their positions all those who do not prove submissive, i.
If not, then the intellectuals of this country deserve nothing better than the slavery which is intended for them. Einstein was a lifelong pacifist and believed that wars stood in the way of human progress. He advocated the creation of a supranational organization would make war as impossible in Europe as it was impossible between the former kingdoms that comprised the German Empire.
According to the plan, nations would be unable to wage war if one in 50 men refused to serve in the military. In the twenties, when no dictatorships existed, I advocated that refusing to go to war would make war improper.
Political views of Albert Einstein - Wikipedia
I had no alternative but to act as I did, although I have always been a convinced pacifist. I did not say that I was an absolute pacifist, but rather that I has always been a convinced pacifist.
While I am a convinced pacifist, there are circumstances in which I believe the use of force is appropriate — namely, in the face of an enemy unconditionally bent on destroying me and my people. I am a dedicated but not an absolute pacifist; this means that I am opposed to the use of force under any circumstances except when confronted by an enemy who pursues the destruction of life as an end in itself.
I have always been a pacifist, i. I have declined to recognize brute force as a means for the solution of international conflicts. Nevertheless, it is, in my opinion, not reasonable to cling to that principle unconditionally. An exception has necessarily to be made if a hostile power threatens wholesale destruction of one's own group. With the help of Marcel Grossmann 's father, he secured a job in Bern at the Federal Office for Intellectual Propertythe patent office,   as an assistant examiner — level III.
Academic career Byhe was recognized as a leading scientist and was appointed lecturer at the University of Bern.
Einstein was appointed associate professor in From untilhe was professor of theoretical physics at the ETH Zurichwhere he taught analytical mechanics and thermodynamics. He also studied continuum mechanicsthe molecular theory of heat, and the problem of gravitation, on which he worked with mathematician and friend Marcel Grossmann. Max Planck and Walther Nernst visited him the next week in Zurich to persuade him to join the academy, additionally offering him the post of director at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physicswhich was soon to be established.
He was officially elected to the academy on 24 July, and he accepted to move to the German Empire the next year. His decision to move to Berlin was also influenced by the prospect of living near his cousin Elsa, with whom he had developed a romantic affair. He joined the academy and thus the Berlin University on 1 April The institute was established on 1 Octoberwith Einstein as its director.
Inthat prediction was confirmed by Sir Arthur Eddington during the solar eclipse of 29 May Those observations were published in the international media, making Einstein world-famous.
On 7 Novemberthe leading British newspaper The Times printed a banner headline that read: Travels abroad Albert Einstein at a session of the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation League of Nations of which he was a member from to Einstein visited New York City for the first time on 2 Aprilwhere he received an official welcome by Mayor John Francis Hylanfollowed by three weeks of lectures and receptions.
He went on to deliver several lectures at Columbia University and Princeton Universityand in Washington he accompanied representatives of the National Academy of Science on a visit to the White House. On his return to Europe he was the guest of the British statesman and philosopher Viscount Haldane in London, where he met several renowned scientific, intellectual and political figures, and delivered a lecture at King's College London.
When he finally divorced Mileva inhe agreed to give her the money he might receive if he ever won a Nobel Prize. One of the deep thoughts that consumed Einstein from to was a crucial flaw in his own theory: His friend Paul Ehrenfest had noticed a curious fact. If a disk is spinning, its rim travels faster than its centre, and hence by special relativity metre sticks placed on its circumference should shrink. This meant that Euclidean plane geometry must fail for the disk. For the next 10 years, Einstein would be absorbed with formulating a theory of gravity in terms of the curvature of space-time.
Albert Einstein | Biography, Education, Discoveries, & Facts | mephistolessiveur.info
In November Einstein finally completed the general theory of relativity, which he considered to be his masterpiece. Later they patched up their differences and remained friends. Einstein would write to Hilbert, I struggled against a resulting sense of bitterness, and I did so with complete success.
I once more think of you in unclouded friendship, and would ask you to try to do likewise toward me. Today physicists refer to the action from which the equations are derived as the Einstein-Hilbert action, but the theory itself is attributed solely to Einstein.
Albert Einstein: Biography, Theories & Quotes
Mercury in tests of relativity. His theory also predicted a measurable deflection of light around the Sun. As a consequence, he even offered to help fund an expedition to measure the deflection of starlight during an eclipse of the Sun. Many feared that calling in the police to release the officials would result in a tragic confrontation. Einstein, because he was respected by both students and faculty, was the logical candidate to mediate this crisis.
Together with Max BornEinstein brokered a compromise that resolved it. One set sail for the island of Principeoff the coast of West Africaand the other to Sobral in northern Brazil in order to observe the solar eclipse of May 29, Thomsonpresident of the Royal Society, stated: This result is not an isolated one, it is a whole continent of scientific ideas.
Invitations came pouring in for him to speak around the world. Everywhere he went, the crowds numbered in the thousands. En route from Japan, he received word that he had received the Nobel Prize for Physics, but for the photoelectric effect rather than for his relativity theories.
During his acceptance speech, Einstein startled the audience by speaking about relativity instead of the photoelectric effect. Einstein also launched the new science of cosmology. His equations predicted that the universe is dynamic—expanding or contracting.
He corresponded with Sigmund Freud both of them had sons with mental problems on whether war was intrinsic to humanity. He discussed with the Indian mystic Rabindranath Tagore the question of whether consciousness can affect existence. One journalist remarked, It was interesting to see them together—Tagore, the poet with the head of a thinker, and Einstein, the thinker with the head of a poet. It seemed to an observer as though two planets were engaged in a chat. He wrote that he did not believe in a personal God that intervened in human affairs but instead believed in the God of the 17th-century Dutch Jewish philosopher Benedict de Spinoza —the God of harmony and beauty.
We are in the position of a little child entering a huge library filled with books in many different languages. That, it seems to me, is the attitude of even the most intelligent human being toward God.