Daimyo - New World Encyclopedia
During times of the peace, daimyo were noblemen under the shogun. . The Emperor was equivalent to the God for the countrymen. . Their relationships, in other words, were to be with the shogun and the people of their domains, not each. The daimyō were powerful Japanese feudal lords who, until their decline in the early Meiji period, ruled most of Japan from their vast, hereditary land holdings. In the term, dai (大) means "large", and myō stands for myōden (名田), meaning private land. Subordinate to the shōgun, and nominally to the Emperor and the kuge, Ieyasu also categorized the daimyō according to their. The shogun and his advisors made Edo (now known as Tokyo) the realm's military to be over daimyo and each oversaw the inhabitants within their territory. At the same time, the superior in the relationship must act with benevolence This is because God is the Essential Uprightness and Honesty, and therefore.
In fact, some shoguns were weak-willed, incompetent, or simply lazy. The bakufu machinery functioned reasonably well with or without strong shogunal leadership. The two most important agencies within the bakufu were the Senior Councilors roju, literally "elders within" and the Junior Councilors wakadoshiyori, literally, "younger elders".
The Senior Councilors usually consisted of four or five daimyo of a certain type. The whole group met in council to decide important matters of state, such as the selection of a new shogun should the previous one die without naming a successor. The Senior Councilors also supervised several high-ranking officials such as the commissioners that administered the major cities e.
The Senior Councilors were a powerful group. Some shoguns gave them wide latitude; others tried to rein them in. They supervised inspectors, who kept watch over bakufu retainers of sub-daimyo rank. Therefore, in the pattern of confiscated holdings [ mokkan], management should proceed accordingly. It is commanded thus. Residents shall know this and abide by it. The aforesaid person, in accordance with the will, is appointed to this shiki. As to the fixed annual tax and other services, these shall be paid in accordance with precedent.
The housemen of this province are to obey Tomomasa, perform the imperial guard service, and in general show their loyalty.
And he is not, under any pretext, to cause difficulties for the notables of this province. He has been apprised of these instructions. Bakufu relations with the daimyo were complex.
What was the relationship between the samurai, bushido, seppuku, and the daimyo?
In some respects, the shogun was simply a very large and powerful daimyo. In other respects, such as when dealing with foreign countries, the shogun was the singular leader of all of Japan.
The bakufu imposed numerous restrictions on daimyo, the most important of which are included in the excerpts from Laws for Warrior Households above. Daimyo were limited to a single castle and had to obtain bakufu permission to make any repairs on it. Daimyo were forbidden to act in concert with each other on any matters of policy.
Their relationships, in other words, were to be with the shogun and the people of their domains, not each other. Even marriages were subject to shogunal approval. Should a daimyo appear to have accumulated a major surplus of wealth, the shogun might require him to build a bridge or do some other sort of work for the public good outside his own domain--in part as a way of draining off some of that wealth. Alternate attendance also kept daimyo expenses up.
Bakufu inspectors visited each domain from time to time. The daimyo nevertheless governed with a high degree of autonomy within their domains. Daimyo, for example, paid no regular taxes to the bakufu.
As long as they fulfilled their duties to the shogun, abided by the restrictions mentioned above, and caused no major problems, daimyo were free to govern as they saw fit. Some domains issued their own currency, good only within its borders, and laws sometimes varied from one domain to the next. In the early decades of the Tokugawa period, the daimyo were a culturally diverse group.
Warrior Puppets: The Samurai of the Tokugawa Shogunate
By the second and third generations, however, all daimyo spent their formative years in Edo, which resulted in a high degree of cultural homogeneity among them.
Indeed, the samurai class as a whole--which depended on fixed incomes, the value of which steadily shrank owing to inflation--tended to sink into poverty throughout the eighteenth century. In the long run, it was the merchants who prospered during the Tokugawa period. Mainly for this reason, Tokugawa-era culture tended to celebrate merchant values and material wealth.
We examine certain aspects of Tokugawa-period culture in the next two chapters. Here, we jump to the end of the Tokugawa period to see how it fell and to sketch the outlines of the modern state that replaced it. Like many of the lords of the sengoku warring states period, Asakura endeavored to strengthen his domain administratively as well as militarily.
This document, produced aroundsuggests the extent to which the systematization of governmental structures was progressing on the level of the domain, even as the nation lacked any form of effective central authority.
The daimyo domains varied greatly in size. The largest han, estimated to yield 1, koku of rice a year, was the domain of the Maeda, a tozama family, with its capital at Kanazawa in Kaga Province on the Sea of Japan. The rest ran the gamut from large, province-sized dominions to minuscule enclaves in the territories of more powerful lords.
The names of no less than different han were recorded over the long course of the Tokugawa period, but no more than or so ever existed at the same time; at the very end of the era, inthere were Each was in theory a realm in itself, run by its daimyo from his castle, but all were in actuality overshadowed by the bakufu.
The shogun had the power to make and unmake daimyo. He could move them from one part of the country to another. He could increase or reduce the size of their domains. And he could confiscate those domains altogether for a real or perceived infraction of his rules. Immediately after his great victory at Sekigahara inIeyasu augmented his direct holdings—at two and a half million koku already the most extensive and productive in Japan—by confiscating the territories of his enemies. At one fell swoop, his possessions increased to four million koku.
His successors added to the shogunal demesne that is, the real property held by the shogun in his own right by various means, including large-scale reclamation schemes, over the years.
The premature succession was duly ratified by imperial investiture. Especially these first three Tokugawa shoguns made sure they cultivated the roots of their institutional legitimacy, embracing but at the same time exploiting the imperial court. Ceremony and splendid display surrounded their every step in the imperial city.
No expense was spared on the production. Reveling in the aura of majesty generated by the court of Kyoto, the Tokugawa shoguns showered its denizens with gold, silver, rare perfumes, deeds to property, and other tangible signs of esteem.
But their generosity had a price: They imposed controls on the imperial establishment.
An introduction to the Samurai
Two years later, it nullified all such awards made sincethereby asserting the primacy of shogunal law over imperial prerogative. Clearly, the Tokugawa rulers had achieved more than mere legitimacy. On his deathbed inIeyasu allegedly declared that he would manifest himself as a deity in order to continue extending his protection over the land he had pacified, commanding: The designation chosen for Ieyasu reflected the syncretic strain in Japanese religion.
In time, the scholar Arai Hakuseki was to equate the veneration of Ieyasu with that of Heaven, the ultimate source of ethics and validation of politics, thereby adding a Confucian dimension and sanction to his cult. It is estimated that no fewer than five hundred shrines, large and small, in which Ieyasu was worshipped as a deity existed in the Tokugawa era. Far from it, they did so in general. To be sure, their domains were autonomous in the sense that they possessed the right of internal self-government.
Each han was administered according to its own laws. Each collected its own taxes. Each regimented its own population. For all that, they did not enjoy political freedom of action. They operated within a framework defined by the shogunate. That the han mimicked the bakufu was no accident.
The Tokugawa prescribed its model to the daimyo. The revised version of additionally instructed them to keep their roads, post stations, ferries, and bridges in good repair so that there would be no tie-ups anywhere; moreover, they were prohibited from instituting toll stations or imposing new embargoes.
Conducive to the free flow of trade throughout the country though these regulations may have been, they were clear intrusions into the autonomous sphere of the daimyo domains. Their wives and children lived in Edo all the time, being in effect hostages of the shogunate. A daimyo was therefore obliged to lead a double life or, rather, to keep up two establishments, maintaining both a provincial castle and a metropolitan residence, not to mention detached villas and other dependencies.
As though being required to flaunt his lordly status in two separate domiciles—his han and Edo— were not wasteful enough, a daimyo could not do without a large entourage and an ostentatious display on his yearly journeys back and forth between them.
In the case of the more distant domains, this meant a continuous road show for many hundreds of miles, and was ruinously expensive. The shogunate did not tax the provincial lords directly. But it certainly found other ways to bleed them economically. The daimyo were compelled to provide funds, labor, and materials for the grand construction projects of the bakufu.
What was the relationship between the samurai, bushido, seppuku, and the daimyo? | Socratic
What was involved was nothing less than leveling a line of hills and filling in an inlet of Edo Bay. As time went on in the Tokugawa period, other means of controlling the daimyo were put into place, including mandatory contributions to public works such as road building.
The daimyo were forbidden to build ships and castles, and other shows of military power were often tightly controlled. Dissatisfaction with these controls, and the economic hardships incurred by sankin kotai, and the forced support of public works, moved several daimyo to side against the Tokugawa shogunate during the Meiji Restoration.
Inthe year after the Meiji Restoration, the daimyo, together with the kuge, formed a new aristocracy, the kazoku. Inthe han system was abolished and prefectures were established, thus effectively ending the daimyo era in Japan. Buke Shohatto The Tokugawa Shogunate created the Buke-Shohatto, thirteen articles of law which the daimyo were required to follow. These articles placed restrictions on such matters as castle renovations, the repair of roads, and marriage. The first two articles ordered the samurai to devote themselves to literature and arms and to refrain from debauchery.
Articles described the way in which daimyo were expected to govern their fiefs. Articles prohibited conspiracies or other activities by the daimyo against the shogunate. Articles dictated the clothing to be worn by each class, the vehicles that each could use, and the manners appropriate to each class. The last two articles,directed the samurai to live in a frugal manner, and mandated that retainers be promoted on the basis of merit. The daimyo were allowed to exercise absolute power within their domains, but they were expected to up hold the policies of the central government.
The laws of the shogun controlled all areas of national interest and protected the security of the shogunate. A daimyo could be removed from his position if he displeased the shogunate in some way.
Daimyo Flags Between andwhen Tokugawa unified Japanmany battles were fought between the daimyo of different states kuni. During the battles, flags and banners were used to identify the forces of each daimyo, so that warriors would be able to recognize their allies.
Vertical banners called nobori-hata, approximately 4 m x 0. The flags bore the family crests mon of the daimyo, and often brothers and cousins within the same family had their own flags.
Inside the castle, flags were not used but each samurai on duty wore ceremonial kimonocalled kamishimo, with his family crest mon showing in three places. The God of War was believed to reside in the daimyo flags, and when not in use they were place in a valuable box and stored in a special room of the castle. Afterthe flags were no longer needed, except for ceremonial occasions, because battles were no longer being fought.
Flags from this period are often rectangles displaying a simple symbol. Japan in the Muromachi age. Cornell East Asia series,