No longer tied to Britain, Australia is still searching for its place in the world
Learn about the history of Australia, including aboriginal history, British with their land, but travelled widely to trade and find water and seasonal produce, attack ever conducted by a foreign millitary power on Australia took place in Darwin. Australia is one of the largest countries on Earth, and the only country that Dutch explorers first landed in Australia in , and the British began to Many Australians think the country should end its ties to Britain and become a republic. In. The Australia-New Zealand relationship is characterized by mostly (That said, the countries' interchangeability in the eyes of the world can also be When the British settled Australia in the s, they declared the nation.
Unlike Dutch explorers, who deemed the land of doubtful value and preferred to focus on the rich Indies to the north, Cook and Joseph Banks of the Royal Society, who accompanied Cook for scientific observations, reported that the land was more fertile. In Joseph Banks recommended Botany Bay, named after the profusion of new plants found there, as a site for a penal settlement. A new outlet was needed for convicts to be transported overseas in continuance of British penal policy after the loss of the 13 North American colonies.
Considerations other than the pressing need to reduce the convict population may have influenced Lord Sydney, the home minister, in his action.
There was, for example, some expression of interest in supplies for the Royal Navy and in the prospects for trade in the future. The first fleet in the series that transported convicts arrived in Januarybringing 1, people, nearly half of them convicts.
Australia–United Kingdom relations - Wikipedia
The colony of New South Wales was formally proclaimed on February 7, Transportation of convicts eventually brought a total of aboutprisoners to Australia. The initial character of a penal colony lasted for about 60 years in the areas of major original settlement. Western Australia, which was founded in by free immigrants, added convicts to its population by its own choice from to Convicts were not sent to South Australia, which became a colony in The major continuing problems of the colonies arose from efforts to carry out British policy designed for a penitentiary when other interests—fishing, sealing, farming, and trade—were developing.
Roads, bridges, and other transportation facilities necessary for commerce were built by convict labor, as were government buildings. In the early nineteenth century, enterprising colonists successfully introduced merino sheep as a source of the fine wool increasingly demanded by the expanding British textile industry.
Individual immigrants to Australia increased in number in the s. They were mostly people of some means with which to acquire land, which was in general granted only to those of substance. This land policy, favoring the so-called exclusives, or individuals of established position, over the freed convicts, or emancipists, who sought to advance themselves, facilitated the pastoral expansion of the s.
Thus, this portion of Australia was originally settled by migration within Australia. But sheepmen had already established stations ranches and sheep runs beyond the official boundaries before they were so designated. Such individuals were legally trespassers on crown land and, like their counterparts in the United States who occupied land without title or permit, they became known as squatters.
Unlike squatters in the United States, however, those in Australia were for the most part men of substance from the middle and upper classes of British society. The term squatter did not carry any invidious meaning. In fact, squatters became the landed gentry of Australia—the so-called squattrocracy—and their wealth made them the most powerful economic segment of the population.
Sheep were the basis of their wealth, and by there were more than 15 million head in Australia. Squatting was legitimized inafter the British government recognized the impossibility of enforcing the original settlement restrictions.
The expansion of the pastoral industry did not result in new urban centers; the hundreds of sheep stations in New South Wales had an average of only 10 to 12 people each. The established seaport cities continued to be the main centers of population, making relative urbanization a feature of the Australian settlement pattern in the colonial period.
Settlement of prospectors during the gold rushes in Australia.
Australia - History | mephistolessiveur.info
Gold was discoverd in and led to the Victorian gold rush during this era Victoria dominated the world's gold output. Self-Government and Economic Expansion, — Queensland received a constitution similar to that of New South Wales when it was separated from the latter and established as a new colony in Western Australia remained under the old system owing to its small population and limited economic growth.
Democratic political practices developed rapidly after the new constitutions came into force. The Australian colonies became self-governing while undergoing great changes caused by the discovery of gold in Gold was, in fact, a cause for the change in attitude of the British government, which considered that the increasing wealth as well as the growing population of the colonies justified their assumption of political responsibility.
The discovery of gold, first in New South Wales and soon afterward in the new colony of Victoria, led to an influx of newcomers, including professional and skilled people. Most Australian gold was exported to Britain, which used it to maintain a gold standard for the pound. Agriculture, transportation, and industry developed from the s to meet the demands of the increasing population.
___ History of Australia
South Australia, largely through its own capital resources, increased wheat output sharply, started the manufacture of agricultural machinery, and pioneered river transport to ship grain to Victoria. The colonial governments of New South Wales and Victoria undertook to build railroads, but the selection of different gauges was the origin of an eventual major problem in transportation. Industries of all sorts—processing, manufacturing, and engineering, including foundries and shipyards—were established in Sydney and Melbourne.
Western Australia and Tasmania, however, did not experience similar development. The pastoral industry adapted in part to changing conditions by greatly increasing cattle breeding for both beef and dairy products, which required less labor than sheep, and by slaughtering sheep for mutton. Where capital was available—chiefly in Victoria—station owners started to fence their sheep runs as a means of reducing their need for shepherds.
Wool shippers benefited greatly from improved ocean shipping, which increased the frequency and decreased the cost and elapsed time of voyages to and from Britain.
The colonial governments were powerless to resolve the conflict untilwhen their newly acquired constitutions gave them control of the disposition of public lands.
The extreme age of the landscape has meant that the soils are remarkably infertile and frequently laterised. Even soils derived from granitic bedrock contain an order of magnitude less available phosphorus and only half as much nitrogen as soils in comparable climates in other continents. Soils derived from extensive sandplains or ironstone are even less fertile, nearly devoid of soluble phosphate and deficient in zinccopper, molybdenum and sometimes potassium and calcium.
The infertility of most of the soils has required heavy application by farmers of fertilizers. These have resulted in damage to invertebrate and bacterial populations.
Large-scale land clearing for agriculture has damaged habitats for native flora and fauna. As a result, the South West region of the state has a higher concentration of rare, threatened or endangered flora and fauna than many areas of Australia, making it one of the world's biodiversity "hot spots". Large areas of the state's wheatbelt region have problems with dryland salinity and the loss of fresh water. It was originally heavily forested, including large stands of karrione of the tallest trees in the world.
Thanks to the offshore Leeuwin Currentthe area is one of the top six regions for marine biodiversity and contains the most southerly coral reefs in the world.