Treasure Trove: Bennelong's letter - ABC Canberra - Australian Broadcasting Corporation
Bennelong was present when Governor Arthur Phillip was speared at Manly in said to have had a love-hate relationship with both the settlement and Phillip. News · Topics On 25 November , Phillip's men kidnapped Bennelong and Bennelong maintained a friendly relationship with Phillip, learning travelling to England with the governor and another Aboriginal man. Reading Comprehension Questions for 'Stories of Life at Sydney Cove' by Susan . a) What did Governor Phillip find at Port Jackson? e) What was the result of Bennelong's visit to Sydney Cove? c) As Phillip prepared to leave Sydney, what was Boorong and Nanberry's relationship with the settlers?.
Letters from Lisbon bring the following Account from Rio Janeiro: Augustine, of 70 Guns, having been separated from the Squadron of M. Casa Tilly, was attacked by two Portugueze Ships, against which they defended themselves for a Day and a Night, but being next Day surrounded by the Portugueze Fleet, was obliged to surrender.
In Julyin a change of government, Thomas Townshend became Secretary of State for Home and American Affairs, and assumed responsibility for organising an expedition against Spanish America. Like his predecessor, Lord Germain, he turned for advice to Arthur Phillip. Phillip learnt of this in April when he put in for storm repairs at Rio de Janeiro.
Phillip wrote to Townshend from Rio de Janeiro on 25 Aprilexpressing his disappointment that the ending of the American War had robbed him of the opportunity for naval glory in South America.
From October to September he was employed by Nepean, who was in charge of the Secret Service relating to the Bourbon Powers, France and Spain, to spy on the French naval arsenals at Toulon and other ports. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
The British Government took the decision to settle what is now Australia and found the Botany Bay colony in mid Lord Sydney, as Secretary of State for the Home Office, was the minister in charge, and in September he appointed Phillip commodore of the fleet which was to transport the convicts and soldiers who were to be the new settlers to Botany Bay.
Upon arrival there, Phillip was to assume the powers of Captain General and Governor in Chief of the new colony. A subsidiary colony was to be founded on Norfolk Islandas recommended by Sir John Call, to take advantage for naval purposes of that island's native flax and timber. Phillip had a very difficult time assembling the fleet which was to make the eight-month sea voyage to Australia.
Everything a new colony might need had to be taken, since Phillip had no real idea of what he might find when he got there. There were few funds available for equipping the expedition. His suggestion that people with experience in farming, building and crafts be included was rejected.
Most of the convicts of whom survived the voyage were petty thieves from the London slums.
Phillip was accompanied by a contingent of marines and a handful of other officers who were to administer the colony. The 11 ships of the First Fleet set sail on 13 May Phillip soon decided that this site, chosen on the recommendation of Sir Joseph Bankswho had accompanied James Cook inwas not suitable, since it had poor soil, no secure anchorage and no reliable water source. After some exploration Phillip decided to go on to Port Jackson, and on 26 January the marines and convicts landed at Sydney Covewhich Phillip named after Lord Sydney.
Governor of New South Wales[ edit ] Shortly after landing and establishing the settlement at Port Jackson, on 15 FebruaryPhillip sent Lieutenant Philip Gidley King with eight free men and a number of convicts to establish the second British colony in the Pacific at Norfolk Island. This was partly in response to a perceived threat of losing Norfolk Island to the French and partly to establish an alternative food source for the mainland colony. With limited supplies, the cultivation of food was imperative, but the soils around Sydney were poor, the climate was unfamiliar, and moreover very few of the convicts had any knowledge of agriculture.
The colony was on the verge of outright starvation for an extended period. The marines, poorly disciplined themselves in many cases, were not interested in convict discipline. Almost at once, therefore, Phillip had to appoint overseers from among the ranks of the convicts to get the others working. This was the beginning of the process of convict emancipation which was to culminate in the reforms of Lachlan Macquarie after Phillip showed in other ways that he recognised that New South Wales could not be run simply as a prison camp.
Lord Sydney, often criticised as an ineffectual incompetent, had made one fundamental decision about the settlement that was to influence it beneficially from the start. Instead of just establishing it as a military prison, he provided for a civil administration, with courts of law.
Two convicts, Henry and Susannah Kable, sought to sue Duncan Sinclair, the captain of Alexanderfor stealing their possessions during the voyage. Convicts in Britain had no right to sue, and Sinclair had boasted that he could not be sued by them. Despite this, the court found for the plaintiffs and ordered the captain to make restitution for the loss of their possessions. In one paragraph he wrote: That there can be no slavery in a free land, and consequently no slaves. Phillip also had to adopt a policy towards the Eora Aboriginal peoplewho lived around the waters of Sydney Harbour.
Phillip befriended an Eora man called Bennelong and later took him to England. On the beach at Manlya misunderstanding arose and Phillip was speared in the shoulder: Soon, a virulent disease, smallpox that was believed to be on account of the white settlers, and other European-introduced epidemics, ravaged the Eora population.
The Governor's main problem was with his own military officers, who wanted large grants of land, which Phillip had not been authorised to grant. Scurvy broke out, and in October Phillip had to send Sirius to Cape Town for supplies, and strict rationing was introduced, with thefts of food punished by hanging.
Convict John MacIntyre had been fatally speared during a hunting expedition by unknown Aboriginal people apparently without provocation. MacIntyre swore on his death bed that he had done them no harm, but marine officer Watkin Tench was suspicious of the claim. Tench was sent on a punitive expedition but finding no Aboriginal people other than Bennelong took no action. The population of about 2, was adequately housed and fresh food was being grown. Phillip assigned a convict, James Ruseland at Rose Hill now Parramatta to establish proper farming, and when Ruse succeeded he received the first land grant in the colony.
On 27 February four convicts came before the Criminal Court for stealing large quantities of provisions from the stores and were condemned to death.
Lashings of varying vigour were also administered there. Justice was to be seen to be done and the convicts were required to attend these sombre occasions. Heavy lashings were a common punishment, usually with less for women.
There were other initiatives. Among his Instructions Phillip had received a directive to establish an auxiliary settlement on Norfolk Island, which Cook had discovered and which Britain was anxious to prevent falling into foreign hands. In addition to its strategic value, the island offered items of interest to a naval nation in its flax for sail making, hemp for ropes, and good mast timber. Enlightened, many were soon eager for release from these formal bonds. Meanwhile, Phillip was extending his reach of knowledge outwards.
Two officers from the Sirius, his second-in-command Captain John Hunter, and first Lieutenant William Bradley, had begun making provisional examination of the Harbour on 28 and 29 January and conducted a thorough harbour survey on February, penetrating the many inlets in a six-oared boat and marking multiple depths with great exactitude.
At the end of that active month of February, with the foundations of settlement in ordered place, Phillip invited Bradley to draw a Map of the colonial encampment.
Woollarawarre Bennelong | The Dictionary of Sydney
Many of the described structures and placements would be developed and built across the year of Extending his map south into the harbour edging Sydney Cove, Bradley scattered the water with myriad depth soundings — the safety of ships was crucial — with the eleven ships of the First Fleet drawn in position together with their anchors and ropes.
Observing this singular, delicately drawn plan, the reader experiences a deep sense of order and conceptual care. Diversely talented as cartographer and artist, Bradley made several further contributions to the knowledge of Australia. Compared with contemporary temperature measurements taken at Sydney Observatory Hill, these founding records reveal a striking correlation and accuracy and today form an important component of an international measurement effort to recover historical weather data — The Google Earth records by the UK Meteorological Office, a part of the Atmosphere Circulation Reconstruction over the Earth ACRE initiative.
There they encountered not a garrison town framed by marching, military procedures and the violence connected with its purpose, but a society conscious of the rights of the whole community.
Twenty babies had been born on the thirty-six weeks journey, three were baptised by the Rev Johnson on 3 February, and the participation of some fifty children and their mothers in the earliest days of settlement was a salient feature of the young colony.
Arthur Phillip and the Eora
The women convicts looked to the court to override the power men chose to exert over them, to decide questions of insults and relationship assaults, to consider matters affecting health and children, and to attend to trivial disputes among themselves.
It was also notable that the women were not officially required to work. The presence of family proved integral to the settlement.
Thirty-one marines brought a wife and together some twenty-three children to the colony. Among the convicts there were at least two sets of brothers in the First Fleet and at least two cases of convict brothers and sisters. And, alert to the importance of close relationships, Phillip had dispatched four-year-old Edward Parkinson, and Mary Fowles, the seven-year-old daughter of a convict woman, to add this dimension to the community on Norfolk Island.
As a result, soon after the placing of the assigned tents, the male convicts were allowed to visit the women with a view to marriage, and time was allowed for the women to make arrangements with men they had known before sailing. The most abandoned were encouraged to become prostitutes.
There were many degrees of diversity. Over half the male convicts were literate and a quarter of the women had enough schooling to sign their own names although early communications from the women was scant. As Commander in Chief, Phillip was in command of both the naval and marine forces and, ably served by his naval officers, he sought a measure of co-operation from the marine officers that ran against the grain of their tradition.
Major Ross and his officers with the exception of such prominent figures as Collins, Tench and William Dawes refused to do anything other than guard duty, claiming that they were neither gaolers, nor supervisors or policemen.
Hampered by a lack of formal laws to underpin his authority in this, Phillip suffered from their persistent stonewalling and discontent, and their clear disregard of his principles for a participatory society.
There was, accordingly, no such thing as a police force in the colony, the planners had sent no overseers, and the Governor was obliged to look to the convicts themselves, the majority serving the customary sentence of seven years, to carry out the task of policing.
The problem of how to deal with convicts whose seven-year sentence was soon to expire would come to confront Phillip in The naval officers conducted their professional duties with pride and purpose as in any station, but the marine officers, deprived of normal garrison soldiering, endured empty days with jobs little to their taste. One aspect of the colony of interest from the outset was the surprising multiculturalism of the community. While the European settlement was predominantly British, there was a mixture of nationalities and ethnic backgrounds.
Some eight seamen were natives of Portugal, France, the Netherlands and Scandinavia, and there were four negroes of likely West Indian or American background who had escaped to England, among the male convicts, all offering a sense of difference.
Evidence suggests that men and women coming from the same counties or regions in the United Kingdom rarely sought each other out. Convicts had mixed with each other on the outward journey, forming new friendships, and change itself and new opportunities appeared to overrun the boundaries between regions and dialects providing an incipient sense of nationhood.
From the beginning convicts lived together in groups of various sizes, sharing a roof often put up by their joint labour, together with a fire and cooking implements.
They made their own choice as to who they shared with. The presence of Irish convicts, with their own rising sense of nationalism, began to emerge with the Second Fleet in and grew when, and after, ships sailed directly from Ireland in As the trajectory of settlement moved forward there were occasional public celebrations.
The governor also issued a free pardon to the three convicts then in confinement for trial. Explorations of survey extended out from the settlement in attempts to disentangle the surrounding river systems. A farm was established on the site of the Botanic Gardens under the charge of Henry Dodd who had agricultural skills.
Placed under Dodd it was serviced by a hundred convicts and a detachment of marines. It marked the early development of the necessary training of convicts for the further extension of public agricultural gardens. The hospital was expanded into a stouter structure and used extensively under Surgeon White as dysentery and scurvy spread early in the settlement and the cold, rainy months of June — July brought a further horde of patients — up to more — to its rudimentary wards.
Shortages of such vital materials as blankets and sheets and adequate medications remained a pressing need. The challenges of the first winter season were sharp.
Phillip proved an attentive final arbiter given to reducing, moderating, waiving but never increasing sentences. Clear principles had been enunciated in Britain before he departed. The shedding of native blood was prohibited as a crime of the highest nature and the Indigenous people could not be deprived of their land without consent.
They soon learnt that they were not dealing with one people, but a dispersion of different groups of the Eora people that required a repetition in their overtures of friendship. Eager to comprehend, they turned their interest on how these very different people related to each other, what signs there were of status or hierarchy, what systems of governance ordered their affairs.
There he often found himself in company with large numbers of them. And going forth, it became his custom to greet the people with his arms open and outstretched, or with a handshake, the muskets laid clearly visible on the ground.
The role of the Aboriginal women was of particular interest to the officers. However, they were consistently protected by the men. The practical Collins had recognised the warning cries of the Aborigines as the ships entered Botany Bay: Phillip, however, went to intense lengths to understand and befriend the Indigenous people.
On the very last days of his first year as governor two officers had rowed into Manly Cove and lured two local men by the offer of gifts, pulling them, resisting, onto the boat. One got away, the other, Arabanoo, was overpowered and taken to the settlement.
- Arthur Phillip
- Treasure Trove: Bennelong's letter
- Woollarawarre Bennelong
Placed in a tub, cleaned and clothed, after his first fright he was, according to his captors, of a docile temperament and quickly accustomed himself to captivity. Tench was especially enthralled by Arabanoo and learnt much from him while Arabanoo was eager to teach him his language. When the British arrived, the local people were, as Clendinnen points out, one of the few hunter-gatherer societies left on earth and for the Eora people around Sydney Cove, their seasonal resources were essential for their survival.
Colbee escaped within a week while Bennelong remained in captivity. The matter came to a head on 7 September when Phillip was speared at Manly Cove among a throng of Aborigines numbering Bennelong among them. Arriving on shore the Governor, stepping forth in his confident fashion, met a strangely silent gathering.
Bennelong reportedly for there were several versions from the British observers laid a foot long spear with its single wooden barb in front of the assailant.Arthur Phillip: Governor, Sailor, Spy
As Phillip walked forward with a hand outstretched, the assailant flicked the spear to his hand with his foot and threw it violently towards him.